Pet Education
Pet Education Pet Education Pet Education

Pet Pharmacy & Pet Meds
Free Shipping on orders over $49
Pet News & Dog Walking Forecast
Video Center
Register your shelter with Paws for a Cause at DrsFosterSmith.com
  AAFCO
  Association of American Feed Control Officials; an organization which sets standards for pet food ingredients and minimum daily requirements.

  Abdomen
  A region of the body between the chest and the pelvis; belly.

  Abdominocentesis
  The insertion of a needle into the abdominal cavity to remove fluids.

  Abscess
  A localized accumulation of pus; usually associated with infection.

  ACE inhibitor
  Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor: Drug which decreases the function of this particular enzyme. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme changes a compound called angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent blood vessel constrictor. ACE inhibitors, then, have the effect of dilating blood vessels, since less Angiotensin II is produced.

  Acid
  A fluid containing a high proportion of hydrogen ions, giving the liquid a sour taste. Measured by pH units, with 1 the most acid, and 14 the least acid. Chemical reactions in the body have to take place at or near neutrality, pH 7.

  ACTH
  Adrenocorticotropic hormone. A hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland, which stimulates the adrenal gland to work.

  Activated charcoal
  Charcoal which has been treated to increase its adsorptive power (ability to have chemicals adhere to it); used to treat various forms of poisoning. 

  Active immunity
  Immunity produced when an animal’s own immune system reacts to a stimulus e.g., a virus or bacteria, and produces antibodies and cells which will protect it from the disease caused by the bacteria or virus. Compare with 'passive immunity.'

  Acute
  Having a sudden and generally severe onset. See also Chronic.

  Addisons disease
  Addison's disease is also known as hypoadrenocorticism. It is a disease that results from a decrease in corticosteroid secretion from the adrenal gland. See article: Addison's Disease (Hypoadrenocorticism) in Dogs.

  Adjuvant
  A substance added to killed vaccines to stimulate a better immune response by the body. Common adjuvants contain aluminum compounds.

  Adrenal glands
  Two small glands near the kidneys that produce many hormones required for life.

  Adrenaline
  A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that elevates heart and respiration rates; also called 'epinephrine.'

  Adrenergic
  Communication between the nerves and muscles that uses epinephrine as the 'messenger.' Adrenergic stimulation is what is involved in the 'flight or fight' response, which means the body is alerted to a danger of some sort and prepares to basically run or fight. Adrenergic stimulation results in an increased heart rate, sweating, and increased blood pressure.

  Adsorbent
  A solid substance which attracts other molecules to its surface.

  Adulticide
  Medication formulated to kill adult forms of a parasite.

  Aerobic
  Needing oxygen to live. See also Anaerobic bacteria.

  Aerobic bacteria
  Bacteria that require oxygen to survive and grow.

  Agglutination
  Clumping together.

  Albino
  An animal that is completely white because it lacks the ability to make pigment. Its eyes are pale blue or pink.

  Albumin
  A protein in the blood responsible for the maintenance of osmotic (water) pressure in the blood; also binds (attaches) to large molecules in the blood and serves to transport them; produced by the liver; also called 'serum albumin.'

  Aldosterone
  A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that stimulates sodium (and therefore water) retention and potassium excretion; important in blood pressure maintenance.

  Alimentary
  Pertaining to food or the digestive tract.

  Alkaline
  A substance with very few hydrogen ions, and a pH over 7. Lye is strongly alkaline.

  Allergen
  A substance that causes an allergic reaction, e.g., pollen.

  Alopecia
  A loss of hair or baldness.

  Alveoli
  The tiny microscopic areas of the lung where the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of the blood occurs. Also called alveolus and alveolar sacs.

  Aminoglycoside
  A class of antibiotics which act by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis within the bacteria which results in the death of the bacteria. Antibiotics in this class include gentamicin (Gentocin), kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tobramycin, and amikacin. Many of these antibiotics are not well-absorbed from the animal's digestive system, so are often administered as injections, or used topically.

  Amylase
  Digestive enzyme, produced by the pancreas which breaks down carbohydrates and starches.

  Anabolic steroid
  A type of steroid (not a corticosteroid like prednisone, cortisone, or dexamethasone) which promotes the building of tissues, like muscle.

  Anaerobic bacteria
  Bacteria which only live in an environment in which there is no or little oxygen, e.g., Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus.

  Analgesia
  Pain relief.

  Anamnestic response
  The faster and greater immune response produced by an animal who has previously encountered that specific antigen. Memory cells are responsible for this more efficient response. Also called 'secondary response.'

  Anaphylaxis
  Anaphylaxis is a rare, life-threatening, immediate allergic reaction to something ingested or injected. If untreated, it results in shock, respiratory and cardiac failure, and death. See article: Anaphylaxis in Dogs and Cats. May also be referred to as anaphylactic shock or anaphylactoid reaction.

  Androgen
  A hormone which produces male sexual characteristics, e.g., testosterone.

  Anemia
  A condition in which the number of red blood cells present in the blood is lower than normal.

  Anesthesia
  Loss of sensation or feeling; induced artificially with drugs to permit painful procedures such as surgery.

  Angiography
  The x-ray of vessels after injecting a contrasting fluid.

  Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor
  (ACE inhibitor) Drug which decreases the function of this particular enzyme. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme changes a compound called angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent blood vessel constrictor. ACE inhibitors, then, have the effect of dilating blood vessels, since less Angiotensin II is produced.

  Anisocoria
  A condition in which the pupils of the eyes are not of equal size. 

  Anorexia
  Loss of appetite.

  Anterior
  Positioned in front of another body part, or towards the head of the animal. Opposite of posterior.

  Anthelmintic
  Medication which kills certain types of intestinal worms; dewormer.

  Antibiotics
  Usually refers to drugs administered to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria; not effective against viral infections.

  Antibody
  Small disease-fighting proteins produced by certain types of cells called 'B cells.' The proteins are made in response to 'foreign' particles such as bacteria or viruses. These antibodies bind with certain proteins (antigens) on foreign particles like bacteria, to help inactivate them. See also Antigen.

  Antibody titer
  A measurement of the amount of antibodies in the blood. The test to measure antibodies is usually performed by making a number of dilutions of the blood and then measuring at what dilution there is sufficient antibody to react in the test. For example, a titer of 1:8 (one to eight) means the blood can be diluted to one part blood and seven parts saline and still produce a positive reaction in the test. The higher the titer (1:16 is higher than 1:8), the more antibody is present.

  Anticholinergic
  Stopping the communications between certain nerves and muscles of the body including those of the gastrointestinal tract and heart. These nerves are called 'parasympathetic' nerves and do such things as constrict the pupils of the eye, stimulate contractions of the muscles in the intestine, and slow the heart rate. Anticholinergic drugs would have the effect, then, of dilating the pupil, slowing contractions of the intestines, and increasing the heart rate.

  Anticholinesterase
  A drug that blocks the enzyme acetylcholinesterase; this results in stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system.

  Anticoagulation
  Stopping the blood clotting process.

  Anticonvulsant
  A drug used to prevent or decrease the severity of convulsions.

  Antidiuretic hormone
  A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that reduces the production of urine in the kidneys and therefore prevents water loss; also called 'vasopressin.'

  Antiemetic
  An agent that decreases or stops vomiting.

  Antifungal
  Drugs administered to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi (plural of fungus).

  Antigen
  A molecular structure on surfaces of such particles as bacteria and viruses. This structure is recognized by the body as 'foreign' and stimulates the body to produce special proteins called antibodies to inactivate this foreign invader. See also Antibody. Illustration of antigen

  Antiprotozoal
  An agent that kills protozoa, which are one-celled organisms such as Giardia.

  Antipruritic
  Relieves itching.

  Antipyretic
  A substance used to relieve fever.

  Antiseptic
  A substance which inhibits the growth of bacteria, but does not kill them.

  Antispasmodic
  An agent that relieves or decreases spasms in muscle. The muscle could include 'smooth muscle' which is the type of muscle in intestines that causes them to contract and move food through the digestive system.

  Antitussive
  Cough suppressant.

  Anuria
  The condition of complete failure in the function of the kidneys such that no urine is produced.

  Anus
  A muscular opening at the end of the digestive tract where fecal waste is expelled.

  Aplastic anemia
  A serious condition in which red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are not produced in sufficient quantity.

  Aquaculture
  The (usually commercial) captive raising of fish, corals, and other aquatic life for aquariums, food, and scientific purposes.

  Aqueous humor
  The fluid found within the eyeball which provides nourishment to the interior eye structures and keeps the eyeball inflated.

  Arrhythmia
  A variation from normal heart rhythm.

  Arteries
  Thick walled vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the lungs and body tissues; the pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, but all other arteries carry oxygenated blood.

  Arthritis
  Inflammation and swelling in the joints; has multiple causes including lameness.

  Articular
  Pertaining to a joint.

  Ascarid
  Roundworm. See article: Roundworms in Dogs and Cats.

  Ascites
  Fluid accumulation in the abdomen.

  Aspirate
  Withdraw fluid or cells through the use of suction - usually the suction produced by pulling back on the plunger of a syringe attached to a needle which is inserted into the area to be sampled. Also the breathing in of a fluid or foreign substances.

  Asymptomatic
  A term used to decide a condition in which no symptoms are present.

  Ataxia
  A lack of muscle coordination, usually causing an abnormal or staggered gait.

  Atoll
  A coral island consisting of a reef surrounding a lagoon.

  Atopy
  An allergy to something that is inhaled such as pollen or house dust. Also called 'inhalant allergy.' See articles in the Allergies section.

  ATP
  Adenosine triphosphate; a compound used for energy by cells.

  Atrial fibrillation
  A heart condition in which the atria (chambers of the heart that receive the blood) contract rapidly, irregularly, and independently of the ventricles (the chambers of the heart that pump the blood). This greatly decreases the efficiency of the heart and its ability to move blood.

  Atrial flutter
  A heart condition in which the atria (chambers of the heart that receive the blood) contract rapidly, irregularly, and independently of the ventricles (the chambers of the heart that pump the blood). This greatly decreases the efficiency of the heart and its ability to move blood.

  Atrium
  (Plural atria) The two chambers of the heart that receive blood. The right atrium receives blood from the body. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

  Atrophy
  An abnormal decrease in size of an organ or tissue.

  Attenuated
  Weakened. An attenuated virus is one which has been changed such that it will no longer cause disease. An attenuated virus would be used in a modified live vaccine.

  Auscultate
  To listen for sounds produced within the body, usually with the aid of a stethoscope.

  Autoimmune
  A condition in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues. To properly function, the immune system must identify foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, slivers, etc., and it must be able to distinguish normal body tissue from these foreign substances. If it fails to distinguish the difference, it attempts to destroy the tissue it wrongly identifies as foreign. For example, in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the body destroys its own red blood cells. In rheumatoid arthritis it attacks the cells in the joints.

  Axilla
  Armpit.

  Azotemia
  The presence of increased nitrogenous (containing nitrogen) waste products in the blood as a result of kidney malfunction.

  B cell
  Also called 'B lymphocyte.' The type of lymphocyte which produces antibody. Compare with 'T cells.'

  Bacteriocidal
  A description of an agent that kills bacteria.

  Bacteriostatic
  A description of an agent that stops the growth (reproduction) of bacteria, but does NOT kill them.

  Bacterium
  Microscopic organisms that lack nuclei and other organelles; pathogenic species cause disease, while nonpathogenic species are harmless.

  Barium Study
  A procedure in which a pet is given barium to swallow or as an enema, followed by x-ray exams to locate disorders of the esophagus, stomach or intestine.

  Benign
  A mild illness or non-malignant form of a tumor. Benign tumors usually have well defined edges and tend to grow slowly.

  Beta blockers
  Heart medications which block certain receptors in the heart called beta receptors. The beta receptors receive signals which generally increase the heart rate. If the heart rate is abnormally fast and uneven, beta blockers will help stabilize the rate and rhythm of contractions.

  Beta-carotene
  A plant pigment which can be converted to Vitamin A by many animals, but not by cats.

  Beta-lactamases
  Enzymes produced by some bacteria which inactivate certain types of penicillin, thus making the bacteria resistant to them.

  Bilateral
  On both sides.

  Bile
  A liquid produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and dispensed into the small intestine as needed; aids in the digestion and absorption of fats.

  Bile acids
  Certain compounds produced by the liver, bound to amino acids, and excreted in the bile to aid in the digestion of fats.

  Bilirubin
  An orange-yellow pigment in bile that is a product of red blood cell breakdown; it is normally excreted with the urine or feces, and a buildup in the body can cause jaundice.

  Biopsy
  The surgical removal of a small amount of abnormal tissue, usually of tumors, for diagnosis.

  Bitch
  A female dog.

  Bladder
  A sac that receives and holds a liquid until it is excreted, e.g., urinary bladder, gall bladder; in fish, the swim bladder holds air.

  Blepharospasm
  Spasm of the eyelids often resulting in complete closure of the lids due to eye pain, such as seen with a scratch on the cornea.

  Bloat
  Filling of the stomach with air.

  Blood gases
  Gases, such as oxygen or carbon dioxide, that are in the blood. 

  Blood glucose
  A graph of blood glucose levels over time. At the time of insulin injection, and at regular intervals throughout the day, the level of glucose in the blood is determined through laboratory testing.
graph of the change in the blood glucose level over time


  Bone marrow
  A soft tissue composed of blood vessels and connective tissues found at the center of bones; the primary function is blood cell production.

  Bone marrow suppression
  A condition in which the cells of the bone marrow which produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are inhibited. This may result from the use of certain drugs, such as anti-cancer agents.

  Borborygmus
  The sound of gas moving through the intestine; bowel sounds.

  Bradycardia
  An abnormal slowing of the heart rate.

  Bronchi
  The plural of bronchus, the large air passages of the lungs.

  Bronchiole
  The small airways in the lung that come off of the larger bronchus; bronchioles are 1 mm or less in diameter.

  Bronchodilator
  Medication which opens up the main air passages to the lungs.

  Bronchoscope
  A tool designed to facilitate inspection of the trachea and bronchi; used in both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  Bronchoscopy
  The internal inspection of the trachea and bronchi using a bronchoscope.

  Bronchospasm
  A condition in which the muscles surrounding the air passages to the lungs contract, narrowing the passages.

  BUN
  Short for 'blood urea nitrogen,' a blood test that estimates kidney function.

  Cachexia
  Extreme weight loss.

  Calcified
  The hardening of tissue through the influx of calcium, usually as a result of chronic inflammation.

  Calculus
  (Plural calculi) Abnormal stone-like structure(s) usually composed of mineral salts, e.g., a bladder calculus is the same thing as a bladder stone.

  Calorie
  The unit of measurement of energy derived from digested food. Fat contains about twice as many calories per gram as protein or carbohydrate.

  Cancer
  A malignant tumor.

  Candida
  A certain genus of yeast which can cause disease in humans and animals; an infection with Candida is called candidiasis.

  Canine
  Pertaining to dogs.

  Carapace
  The upper shell of a turtle or tortoise.

  Carbohydrate
  Compounds made up of chains of sugar units. Simple carbohydrates include table sugar (sucrose), milk sugar (lactose), and fruit sugar (fructose). Complex carbohydrates are very long chains held together by bonds that may not be digestible in the stomach and intestine of a carnivore. Starch is a digestible complex carbohydrate. Seed hulls such as oat bran are digestible by ruminants and horses, but not carnivores.  

  Carcinogen
  A substance which causes cancer.

  Carcinoma
  A malignant cancer that arises from the epithelial tissues of the body such as the skin, intestinal tract, and bladder.

  Cardiac
  Related to the heart.

  Cardiomyopathy
  Diseases of the heart muscle; does not include diseases of the valves of the heart or congenital defects.

  Cardiopulmonary
  Relating to the heart and lungs. 

  Cardiovascular
  Related to the heart and blood vessels.

  Carnivore
  An animal whose natural diet includes meat.

  Carpus
  The wrist (front leg) of dogs and cats. 

  Carrier
  An animal which harbors an infectious organism, such as a virus, bacteria, or parasite. The animal does not appear ill, but can still transmit the organism to other animals by direct contact or releasing the organisms (bacteria, protozoa, viruses) into the environment in the stool, urine, respiratory secretions, or vaginal discharges.

  Castration
  The removal of the sex organs making the animal incapable of reproduction; the correct use of the word can be used to describe both male and female animals, but it is commonly used to describe only males.

  Cataract
  A cloudiness of the lens of the eye, reducing vision and giving the eye a pearly appearance.

  Caudal
  A directional term used to refer to an area more toward the cauda, or tail region; opposite of cranial.

  Caval syndrome
  Disease caused by large numbers of worms in the right side of the heart and vena cava, which results in blood circulation problems in the liver leading to the breakdown of red blood cells, anemia, weakness, and collapse.

  Cecum
  A blind sac that opens into the colon; found in many animals.

  Cell-mediated immunity
  The immunity that is the result of either special lymphocytes directly killing the foreign invader, or lymphocytes (T cells) releasing special chemicals which activate macrophages to kill the invader. Compare with 'humoral immunity.'

  Centrifuge
  A machine that rapidly spins liquid samples and separates out the particles by their density.

  Cerebellum
  A portion of the brain, located on the brainstem, that controls coordination.

  Cerebral
  Relating to the part of the brain known as the cerebrum. 

  Cerebrum
  The largest portion of the brain that performs all higher cognitive functions and is situated in the front part of the cranial cavity.

  Chelation
  Binding of a substance to a metal, thus helping the body to remove it.

  Chemotherapy
  Treatment of a disease with chemical agents (drugs); the term is most commonly used to describe the treatment of cancer with medication.

  Choana
  (Plural choanae) An opening between the nasal cavity and oropharynx (mouth) in birds and reptiles.

  Cholangiohepatitis
  Inflammation of the gall bladder, bile ducts, and liver

  Cholangitis
  Inflammation of a bile duct; see cholecystitis.

  Cholecystitis
  Inflammation of the gallbladder; see cholangitis.

  Chondroitin
  Decreases the activity of enzymes which break down cartilage in a joint. 

  Chondroprotective agent
  A nutritional supplement that protects cartilage.

  Chronic
  Of a long duration: a chronic illness persists for weeks, months, or even for the life of animal. See also acute.

  Chronic superficial keratitis
  A chronic condition of the eye in which blood vessels grow across the cornea (the clear surface of the eye). The cornea looks hazy and sometimes reddened; it may eventually take on a dark pigment. This condition is also called pannus.

  Cirrhosis
  A liver disease caused by the replacement of damaged cells with connective tissue; severe scarring can eventually cause liver failure.

  Class I, II, III, IV medications
  Drugs are classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration of the Department of Justice depending upon such criteria as the potential for human abuse.

  Clinical study
  A planned examination of the effectiveness of a new drug or treatment for a disease as compared to a control group not receiving the treatment; also called a clinical trial.

  Cloaca
  A common tube-like structure through which feces, urine, and reproductive fluids/eggs pass in birds, turtles, and other lower vertebrates.

  Clotting factors
  Protein components in the blood which help it to clot. Clotting is a complex mechanism. In addition to platelets, clot formation is the result of a long chain of chemical reactions carried out by individual molecules called 'clotting factors.' Each factor is numbered such that factor I leads to a reaction with factor II forming a new substance. This then reacts with factor III and so on to factor XII. 

  Clutch
  The uninterrupted series of eggs laid by a hen, usually 2-6 depending on the bird species.

  CNS
  Central nervous system. Includes the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves leading from them.

  Coagulation
  The process of clotting.

  Coagulopathy
  A condition affecting the blood's ability to form a clot. 

  Coccidia
  A one-celled parasite in the category of protozoa. In dogs and cats, coccidia are generally parasites of the intestinal tract. See article: Coccidia in Dogs and Cats.

  Cognitive dysfunction
  A common medical condition in older dogs that results from abnormal brain function, causing certain behavior changes such as disorientation, housebreaking problems, and changes in sleeping patterns and interactions with others.

  Cold-blooded
  Having a body temperature that is not regulated internally, but varies with the environmental temperature. Turtles, lizards, and snakes are cold-blooded.

  Colitis
  An infection or inflammation of the colon.

  Colon
  A part of the digestive tract, specifically the part of large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum.

  Colostrum
  The antibody-rich first milk produced immediately before and after giving birth.

  Coma
  Being in a state of unconsciousness.

  Comedo
  A blackhead, usually the result of a plugged gland within the skin.

  Complete blood count
  A count of the total number of cells in a given amount of blood, including the red and white blood cells; often referred to as a 'CBC,' it is one of the most common tests done to check for abnormalities of the blood.

  Computerized tomography scan (CT scan)
  A radiological imaging procedure that uses x-ray pictures to produce "slices" through a patient's body; also called a computerized axial tomography (CAT).

  Conception
  The onset of pregnancy, when the fertilized egg attaches to the uterus.

  Congenital
  A characteristic of an animal that is present at birth. It may be inherited or induced by events that occur during pregnancy.

  Conjunctiva
  A thin membrane which lines the inside of the eyelids and covers part of the eyeball. 

  Conjunctivitis
  An inflammation of the lining of the eyelids; may cause pain, redness, itching, and a discharge.

  Constipation
  A condition in which the movement of food through the digestive system is longer than normal; often results in hard, dry stool.

  Contrast agents
  A substance given orally or injected into a patient that makes the affected tissue easier to identify on an x-ray.

  Contusion
  An injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin; a bruise.

  Coprophagia
  Eating dung or fecal matter; normal behavior in some animals, such as rabbits.

  Core vaccine
  Vaccine which should be given to all animals of certain species, example, parvovirus vaccine in dogs or panleukopenia in cats (see noncore vaccine).

  Cornea
  The clear part of the front of the eye which allows light in. 

  Corticosteroid
  Hormones produced by the adrenal gland which are important to almost every function of cells and organs. They are divided into two groups: glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids regulate protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism. Mineralocorticoids regulate electrolyte balances.

  Cortisol
  The main glucocorticoid; a hormone naturally produced by the adrenal gland; it is synthesized commercially as hydrocortisone and is used to reduce inflammation.

  Coumestan
  Estrogen-like substance produced by certain plants such as alfalfa; types of phytoestrogen.

  Coumestral
  Estrogen-like substances produced by certain plants such as alfalfa; types of phytoestrogen.

  Cranial
  A directional term used to refer to the area near the cranium, or head region; opposite of caudal.

  Crop
  An organ between the esophagus and stomach of many domestic birds, which serves as a temporary food storage organ.

  Crust
  Area of dried fluid or cells on the skin. The fluid may have been blood, serum, pus, or medication.

  Culture
  The process in which a sample of fluid or tissue is taken from an animal and placed in special media which allows the bacteria, virus, etc., to grow (reproduce) in the laboratory.

  Cushings disease
  Cushing's disease is also known as hyperadrenocorticism. It is a disease that results from an increase in corticosteroid secretion from the adrenal gland. See article: Cushing's Disease (Hyperadrenocorticism) in Dogs. 

  Cutaneous
  Relating to the skin. 

  Cyanosis
  Bluish or grayish color to the skin and gums which occurs when the animal has insufficient oxygen.

  Cyst
  An abnormal sac-like structure that is lined with cells which produce a liquid or thick material.

  Cystitis
  Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

  Cystocentesis
  A method to obtain an uncontaminated urine sample in which a needle is passed through the abdomen into the urinary bladder, and the urine is collected in a syringe attached to the needle.

  Cytokines
  Compounds produced by certain cells, which act as messengers to control the action of lymphocytes and other cells in an immune response.

  Cytology
  The study of cells; often refers to the microscopic examination of a sample taken from the skin or lesion to look for the cause of a condition.

  Cytoplasm
  Substances which make up the inside of a cell and surround the nucleus of the cell which contains the genetic material.

  DEA
  Drug Enforcement Administration. The federal agency which regulates the manufacture, dispensing, storage, and shipment of controlled substances including medications with human abuse potential.

  Decontaminate
  Remove injurious material. 

  Defecation
  The elimination of feces from the rectum.

  Dehydration
  A condition in which the body loses more water than it takes in.

  Dermal
  Relating to the skin. 

  Dermatitis
  An inflammation of the skin.

  Dermatophyte
  Fungus that causes ringworm; include Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton.

  Descenting
  The removal of the anal sacs of a carnivore to prevent the animal from releasing the very strong-smelling secretion.

  Dextrose
  A commonly used name for glucose (sugar) solutions given intravenously to treat fluid or nutrient loss.

  Diabetes mellitus
  A metabolic disease caused by failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, a hormone that allows blood sugar (glucose) to be taken up by cells that require it for function.

  Diagnostic tests
  Procedures run to find the cause of disease or discomfort; tests used to make a diagnosis.

  Dialysis
  A process which involves removing waste products from the body. 

  Diarrhea
  A condition in which the movement of food through the digestive system is faster than normal; often results in the frequent passing of abnormally loose or watery stool.

  Diestrus
  The stage of the estrus cycle which occurs after the animal goes out of heat (also called Diestrous).

  Dietary indiscretion
  Eating what one should not. Dogs with dietary indiscretion eat garbage, dead fish on shore, etc.

  Digestibility
  Expressed as a percent, is a measure of the content of food that is retained in the body after food is eaten. The difference between the weight of food eaten and the weight of stool produced, divided by the weight of the food.

  Digestive system
  The organ system including the mouth, teeth, tongue, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and various glands that functions to ingest, digest, and absorb nutrients.

  Digitalis glycosides
  Class of drugs including digitoxin and digoxin, which are drugs derived from the Digitalis purpurea plant, and used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

  Dilated cardiomyopathy
  A heart condition in which the heart enlarges, but the heart muscle becomes thinner.

  Dinoflagellate
  Single-celled algae, mainly marine and often with a cellulose shell; some species may be luminescent, and some cause the red tides that are extremely toxic to marine life. 

  Disinfection
  The act of using chemicals or heat to kill germs.

  Distemper
  Canine distemper is a viral disease that causes a severe and often fatal systemic illness in dogs and their close relatives. Distemper is also fatal in animals such as raccoons, and mustelids including skunks, mink, and ferrets.

  Diuresis
  Increase in urine production. 

  Diuretic
  Agent which increases the secretion of urine, ridding the body of excess fluid.

  Diurnal
  Active during the day, opposite of nocturnal, which means active during the night.

  DNA
  Deoxyribonucleic acid, the chemical compound that occurs in cells and is the basic structure for genes.

  Domestic animal
  An animal that has been housed and fed by man for generations and has little fear of man as a result. Some domestic animals learn to depend on human provision so completely that they have little ability to survive if returned to a natural habitat.

  Dry Eye
  Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is the technical term for a condition also known as 'dry eye.' It occurs because of inadequate tear production. Symptoms include a thick, yellowish discharge from the eye.

  Duodenum
  The first portion of the small intestine extending from the stomach to the jejunum; most chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs here.

  Duration of immunity
  Length of time an animal is protected from a disease. Vaccines for some diseases provide long durations of immunity (years), while vaccines for some other diseases only provide immunity that lasts for 6 months.

  Dysecdysis
  Abnormal shedding of the skin in reptiles. 

  Dysphagia
  Difficulty swallowing.

  Dysplasia
  An abnormal tissue development, common in the bones of the canine.

  Dyspnea
  Shortness of breath.

  Dystocia
  Difficult birth.

  Dystrophic
  Disorder caused by incorrect nutrition.

  Dysuria
  Difficult or painful urination.

  Ear canal
  The tube that connects the external ear with the ear drum.

  Ear drum
  The membrane that divides the outer ear from the inner ear, where the mechanism of hearing takes place. The membrane prevents infection from reaching the inner ear, as well as vibrating to amplify sounds.

  Ear mites
  Small parasitic insects that live in the ear canal of an animal, and that are able to survive outside the ear for only very short periods of time.

  Ecdysis
  Shedding of the external layers of the skin in reptiles. 

  ECG
  A printout of an analysis of the electrical activity in the heart.

  Echocardiogram
  The image produced by performing an ultrasound examination of the heart.

  Ectoparasite
  A parasite that lives on the outside surface or skin of another animal. Ectoparasites include fleas, ticks, lice, and mange mites.

  Ectopic
  Non-malignant tissue growing in an unusual location (e.g., an ectopic pregnancy is conception of a normal embryo outside the normal location, which is the uterus).

  Edema
  A condition in which the tissues of the body contain too much body fluid. The fluid accumulation may cause swelling in the affected area.

  EKG
  A printout of an analysis of the electrical activity in the heart.

  Electrocardiogram
  A printout of an analysis of the electrical activity in the heart.

  Electrocautery
  An instrument with a very hot tip, heated by electricity, is applied to a tissue. Electrocautery may be used to make an incision, remove a mass, or to stop bleeding.

  Electrolyte
  Chemically, an element when dissolved in water, will cause the solution to transmit electricity. In medicine, certain elements in the blood which are critically important to life, including sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphorous.

  Electroretinography
  The recording of electrical changes in the retina of the eye in response to stimulation by light.

  Elizabethan collar
  A large, plastic, cone-shaped collar used on cats, dogs, and birds to prevent them from licking or biting at skin, wound dressings, or casts.

  Emaciation
  The severe loss of body weight; body weight is generally less than 50% of that in a normal animal.

  Emesis
  Vomiting.

  Encephalitis
  Inflammation of the brain; often caused by a virus.

  Encephalopathy
  Any degenerative disease of the brain. Causes include liver disease resulting in the buildup of toxic by-products of metabolism, heavy metal (e.g., lead) poisoning, and loss of blood supply.

  Endocrine
  Pertaining to the secretion of hormones. The endocrine system consists of various glands which produce hormones.

  Endoscope
  A long flexible instrument which can be passed into the body to view various structures through the use of fiber optics.

  Endotracheal tube
  This tube is placed into the animal's trachea (windpipe) to allow the oxygen and gases to be breathed into the lungs. 

  Enteral feeding
  A method to feed an animal in which a tube is placed through the body wall into the intestine, and a nutritious liquid is forced through the tube into the intestine.

  Enteritis
  An inflammation of the intestines.

  Envenomation
  The act of injecting a poisonous material (venom). 

  Enzyme
  Enzymes are special proteins produced by cells which cause chemical changes in other substances, but which are not themselves changed in the process.

  Eosinophil
  A type of white blood cell that commonly increases in numbers as a response to parasites and allergies.

  Eosinophilia
  A condition in which there are more than the usual number of eosinophils in the circulating blood.

  EPA
  Environmental Protection Agency. The agency of the federal government which licenses pesticides and herbicides.

  Epidermis
  The top layer of the skin.

  Epiphora
  An overflow of tears upon the cheeks due to a blockage or narrowing of the tear ducts.

  Epistaxis
  Bleeding from the nose.

  Erosion
  A shallow defect in the skin. When healed, it will not cause a scar.

  Erythema
  Redness of the skin caused by blood clogging in small blood vessels.

  Erythrocyte
  Red blood cell; contains hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the tissues.

  Esophageal reflux
  A condition in which stomach contents move backward into the esophagus, i.e., heartburn.

  Esophagus
  The muscular tube for the passage of food from the mouth to the stomach.

  Estrogen
  A female hormone produced by the ovaries, which results in the onset of estrus.

  Estrus
  The time when a female animal is fertile and receptive to the male. Also known as a heat period.

  Exophthalmos
  The abnormal outward protrusion (bulging) of the eye.

  Exotic
  An animal not native to the geographical area where it is living.

  Extensor rigidity
  A condition in which muscles contract and tend to straighten the limb, prevent it from relaxing. 

  Extracranial
  Originating external to the cranial (brain) cavity.

  Extrahepatic
  Outside of the liver.

  False negative test result
  The result of a diagnostic test is negative; but the animal actually does have the condition tested for. 

  False positive test result
  The result of a diagnostic test is positive; but the animal actually does not have the condition tested for. 

  FDA
  Food and Drug Administration. The federal agency which approves drugs and medications for use in animals and people.

  Feces
  Body wastes excreted through the anus from the large intestine; also called stool.

  Feline
  Pertaining to cats.

  Fetal
  Pertaining to an unborn animal, or fetus.

  Fetus
  The developing young in the uterus before birth.

  Fine needle aspirate
  Suction is applied to a hollow needle which has been inserted into tissue and a core of the tissue is withdrawn to culture and/or examine microscopically.

  First generation
  First generation: A description of medications developed from an earlier form of the medication. First generation medications were developed from the original form of the drug; second generation medications are adaptations of first generation drugs; third generation drugs are adaptations of second generation, etc.

  Flatulence
  Increased stomach or intestinal gas.

  Flea dip
  A solution made to kill fleas, applied to an animal and not rinsed off, to allow it to have residual action.

  Fluoroscopy
  An x-ray procedure in which x-rays are transmitted through the body onto a fluorescent screen; beneficial in that movement of joints or organ systems can be observed (e.g., the movement of material through the esophagus, stomach, and intestines).

  FLUTD
  Feline lower urinary tract disease; a condition in cats characterized by blood in the urine, urination outside of the litter box, and straining to urinate. The name for this condition was previously called feline urological syndrome (FUS).

  Follicle
  The group of cells in the skin in which a hair or feather develops.

  Foreign body
  Any abnormal substance within the body. Examples include wood slivers, ingested cloth or balls, glass in the feet, etc.

  Fracture
  A break in the bone; generally caused by trauma, twisting, or weakened bone structure due to disease.

  Free radical
  Atom which carries an unpaired electron; free radicals can potentially injure cells and may be responsible for numerous age-related diseases.

  Fungicide
  A drug that kills fungi.

  FUS
  Feline urological syndrome; a condition in cats characterized by blood in the urine, urination outside of the litter box, and straining to urinate. The name for this condition is now called feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD).

  Gait
  The manner or style of movement; often used to assess horses or dogs for lameness.

  Gastric
  Relating to the stomach. 

  Gastric lavage
  To flush out the stomach. 

  Gastritis
  Inflammation of the stomach.

  Gastrointestinal
  Also known as GI. Pertaining to the stomach and intestines. The term 'digestive system' includes the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, anus, pancreas, and liver.

  Germs
  Any microscopic organism that can potentially cause disease; includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

  Gestation
  Pregnancy.

  Gingival
  Relating to the gums.

  Gingivitis
  Inflammation of the gums. 

  Glaucoma
  Increased pressure within the eye caused by an accumulation of fluids; can lead to blindness if left untreated.

  Glipizide
  An oral medication that can be used to control blood glucose levels in some diabetic cats who still have some insulin production.

  Glomerulus
  This literally means a small cluster; commonly used to refer to the renal glomerulus, the area of blood filtering in the kidney.

  Glucocorticoid
  Hormones produced by the adrenal gland which regulate protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, and are important to almost every function of cells and organs. They also stabilize cell membranes which is an important part of their function in treating allergic reactions. Also called glucocorticosteroids.

  Glucocorticosteroid
  Hormones produced by the adrenal gland which regulate protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, and are important to almost every function of cells and organs. They also stabilize cell membranes which is an important part of their function in treating allergic reactions. Also called glucocorticoids.

  Glucosamine
  One of the building blocks the body uses to make new cartilage.

  Glucosuria
  Glucose in the urine. (Also called glycosuria.)

  Glycogen
  A storage form of glucose in the body.

  Glycosaminoglycans
  Compounds which serve as the building blocks of cartilage, which covers the ends of bones within a joint. Glucosamine and chondroitin are necessary for the body to make glycosaminoglycans.

  Gram
  A measure of weight. 28 grams = 1 oz.; 454 grams = 1 lb.

  Gram negative
  A classification of bacteria based upon their lack of retention of a certain stain in the laboratory. The staining quality is based on the structure of the cell wall surrounding the bacteria. This structure of the cell wall influences which antibiotics will kill the bacteria. This laboratory staining method was developed by Hans Gram in 1884.

  Gram positive
  A classification of bacteria based upon their uptake of a certain stain in the laboratory. The staining quality is based on the structure of the cell wall surrounding the bacteria. This structure of the cell wall influences which antibiotics will kill the bacteria. This laboratory staining method was developed by Hans Gram in 1884.

  Granuloma
  The formation of a nodule as a result of inflammation.

  H2 antagonist
  A compound which binds (attaches) to the area on a cell at which histamine also binds. By binding at the same site, the antagonist blocks histamine from binding and prevents histamine from producing its effects, which include the production of stomach acid.

  Half-life
  The time required for the level of a substance in the body (e.g., a drug or toxin) to be reduced by half. 

  Head pressing
  Pressing the head against a wall or other hard object.

  Heart block
  A condition in which the electrical impulses of the heart are not properly conducted from the atria (chambers which receive the blood) to the ventricles (chambers which pump the blood).

  Heartworm
  A species of parasitic worm (Dirofilaria immitis) that lives and reproduces in the chambers of the heart of an animal. Microscopic, immature worms (microfilariae) circulate in the blood and are taken in by mosquitoes that bite the animal. Microfilariae mature in the mouthparts of the mosquito and infect another susceptible animal bitten by the same mosquito.

  Heinz body
  A condition in which the red blood cells are destroyed and this results in anemia. The specific type of anemia is called 'Heinz body anemia' because the red cells develop an abnormality called a 'Heinz body' which can be seen under the microscope. This anemia can occur as a reaction to certain medications and also in cats who eat onions.

  Hemangiosarcoma
  A malignant tumor of the blood vessels, usually occurring in the skin, liver, spleen, right atrium of the heart, and muscle; also called angiosarcoma.

  Hematocrit
  PCV (Packed Cell Volume), hematocrit: A laboratory test to monitor relative number of red blood cells present in the blood. A blood sample is placed in a tiny glass tube and spun in a centrifuge. The cells are heavier than the plasma and are compacted at one end of the tube. After the tube is spun, it is examined and the packed cell volume is determined as the percentage of the red cellular portion relative to the total amount of blood in the tube (i.e. remainder being the plasma). The normal for dogs is 40-59 and cats is 29-50.

  Hematology
  The study of blood, its physiology and pathology.

  Hematoma
  A mass of blood within the tissues. Generally, the result of trauma to the blood vessels or abnormal blood clotting.

  Hematuria
  A condition of blood in the urine.

  Hemodialysis
  A process used to remove waste products from the blood. 

  Hemoglobin
  A protein inside of red blood cells, responsible for the binding and transport of oxygen to the body tissues (Hb).

  Hemolytic
  Causing the red blood cells to break open.

  Hemoptysis
  Blood in the sputum.

  Hemorrhage
  To bleed excessively; may be the result of injury or blood clotting abnormalities.

  Hemostat
  A small surgical instrument used to clamp blood vessels to prevent bleeding.

  Hepatic
  Pertaining to the liver.

  Hepatic fibrosis
  Scarring of the liver

  Hepatitis
  An inflammation or infection of the liver.

  Hepatomegaly
  Enlargement of the liver.

  Herbivore
  Animal that eats primarily plants and vegetation.

  Hernia
  The protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening.

  High titer vaccine
  A modified live vaccine that contains a higher number of virus particles than the 'average' vaccine. High titer vaccines can generally elicit an immune system response in young animals who have a maternal antibody level that would prevent them from responding to an 'average' vaccine. 

  Histamine H2 receptor antagonist
  A compound which binds (attaches) to the area on a cell at which histamine also binds. By binding at the same site, the antagonist blocks histamine from binding and prevents histamine from producing its effects, which include the production of stomach acid.

  Hob
  A male ferret.

  Hormone
  Chemical substance produced by one part of the body which serves as a messenger to or regulator of the processes of another part of the body.

  Host
  The organism in or on which a parasite lives. For example, dogs and cats are hosts for fleas and roundworms.

  Humoral immunity
  The immunity that is the result of antibody production by B cells. Compare with 'cell-mediated immunity.'

  Hybrid
  An animal that has parents of two different species, for instance, a mule's mother is a horse and its father is a donkey.

  Hydrocephalus
  A condition of fluid accumulation in the ventricles (spaces) of the brain; the swelling generally creates pressure on the brain tissues and can cause severe damage if not treated properly.

  Hyper
  A prefix meaning abnormally high or excessive.

  Hypercalcemia
  An increased level of calcium in the blood.

  Hyperesthesia
  Abnormal sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli. 

  Hyperglycemia
  Higher than normal blood glucose level.

  Hyperkalemia
  Increased level of potassium in the blood.

  Hyperphosphatemia
  Elevated blood phosphate levels.

  Hyperpigmentation
  An increased dark color in the skin caused by the pigment 'melanin.'

  Hyperplasia
  An increase of the number of cells within an organ.

  Hyperplastic
  Abnormal increase in the amount of tissue, e.g., a hyperplastic ear would have increased numbers of cells in the ear canal, sometimes to the point of closing off the ear canal. In prostatic hyperplasia, the prostate enlarges due to an increased number of normal, not cancerous, cells.

  Hyperreactive
  Producing an exaggerated, or greater than normal response to a stimulus.

  Hypersensitive
  A type of allergic condition in which the body overreacts to a certain agent such as a bee sting or medication.

  Hypertension
  Blood pressure above normal. 

  Hyperthermia
  An increase in body temperature above normal. 

  Hyperthyroidism
  A condition, more commonly seen in cats, in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. See article: Hyperthyroidism in Cats.

  Hypertrophy
  An increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to the enlargement of existing cells.

  Hyperventilate
  An increase in the rate and/or depth of respiration such that the body loses too much carbon dioxide.

  Hypo
  A prefix meaning abnormally low or deficient.

  Hypoglycemia
  Lower than normal blood glucose level.

  Hypokalemia
  Lower than normal level of potassium in the blood.

  Hypoplasia
  Inadequate or defective development of tissue.

  Hypotension
  Blood pressure below normal. 

  Hypothermia
  A decrease in body temperature below normal. 

  Hypothyroidism
  A condition, more common in dogs, in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. See article: Hypothyroidism in Dogs.

  Hypovitaminosis A
  A condition in which the body suffers from a deficiency in Vitamin A.

  Hypoxia
  Low oxygen level in blood and tissues.

  Iatrogenic
  A condition resulting from the action of the doctor; e.g., an allergic reaction resulting from administration of an injection by a veterinarian.

  Icterus
  Commonly referred to as jaundice. A yellowing of the tissues, usually as a result of abnormal liver function.

  IDDM
  Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): A form of diabetes in which so little insulin is produced that supplemental insulin must be given for the animal to live. Also called Type I diabetes mellitus.

  Idiopathic
  Of unknown cause.

  Ileus
  A condition in which there is an absence of muscular contractions of the intestine which normally move the food through the system; can result in an intestinal obstruction. 

  Immune system
  The body's defense system which recognizes infectious agents and other 'foreign' compounds (such as pollen), and works to destroy them.

  Immune-mediated
  Immune-mediated reaction or disease: A condition or disease caused by abnormal activity of the immune system in which the body's immune system either over-reacts (e.g., immune-mediated contact dermatitis) or starts attacking the body itself (e.g., autoimmune hemolytic anemia). See also autoimmune.

  Immunity
  A condition in which the animal's immune system has been primed and is able to protect the body from a disease-causing agent such as a certain virus or bacteria. An animal could have immunity to one agent, such as parvovirus, but not have immunity to another agent, such as rabies.

  Immunization
  The process of rendering an animal protected (immune) against a certain disease. Vaccination is a way to produce immunization. However, just because an animal has been vaccinated (received a vaccine) does not necessarily mean the animal is immune. If the body did not correctly react to the vaccine or if the vaccine was defective, immunity would not occur. No vaccine produces immunity in 100% of the population to which it was given. 'Vaccination' is not the same as 'immunization.'

  Immunodeficiency
  Reduced function of the immune system of an animal, making it more susceptible to infectious disease. Can be an inherited defect or caused by drugs, radiation, or viruses.

  Immunostimulant
  A compound which stimulates the immune system to work more effectively to kill bacteria, viruses, or cancer cells.

  Immunosuppressive
  Something, for instance a drug, hormone, or virus, that reduces the function of the immune system of an animal. An animal with reduced function of its immune system is called 'immunosuppressed.'

  Incontinence
  The inability to control the excretion of wastes; generally used to describe the inability to control urination.

  Incubation period
  The time between the exposure to a disease, causing agent, and the onset of signs of the disease.

  Infection
  The invasion and replication of microorganisms in tissues of the body; generally causes disease or local inflammation.

  Infectious agents
  The organisms that cause infection; can be viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites.

  Infestation
  A term used to describe an invasion of parasites.

  Inflammation
  A condition in which tissue reacts to injury and undergoes changes during the healing process. As an example, a toe with a sliver of wood in it would be inflamed and show the signs of inflammation which include redness, increased temperature, pain, swelling, and a loss of or disordered function. The toe is swollen, red, hot, painful, and the animal is reluctant to walk on that toe.

  Infusoria
  Microscopic organisms which are cultured as a food for the fry of freshwater fish.

  Inherited
  A trait passed from one generation to the next in the genes from each parent.

  Innate
  A permanent characteristic that is present because of the genetic make-up of the animal.

  Insoluble carbohydrate
  Also, insoluble fiber. Fiber that resists enzymatic digestion in the small intestine.

  Insulin
  A hormone produced by the pancreas which is necessary for glucose to be able to enter the cells of the body and be used for energy.

  Insulin resistance
  A condition in which the blood glucose level remains higher than it should at an insulin dosage of 2 units/pound of body weight per day in cats.

  Insulinoma
  Insulin-producing tumor of the pancreas; the increased production and blood level of insulin resulting from these tumors can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

  Intermediate Host
  In the life cycle of some parasites, the immature form of the parasite must pass through a different type of host (animal, insect, snail, etc.), called the intermediate host, before it can re-enter and infect the type of animal it came from. An example would be heartworms. The adult worm lives in the dog or cat. The immature form, laid by the adult heartworm, is taken up by the mosquito. The immature form develops within the mosquito, and is then reintroduced into another dog or cat where it develops into the mature adult and the cycle repeats itself. The intermediate host for heartworms, then, is the mosquito.

  Interstitial
  Between parts or within the spaces of tissue.

  Intestine
  The part of the digestive system extending from the stomach to the rectum; includes both the small and large intestines and functions in the absorption of water and nutrients; also called bowel or gut.

  Intracellular
  An action taking place within a cell.

  Intracranial
  Originating within the cranial (brain) cavity.

  Intramuscular
  Into the muscle (IM).

  Intranasal
  Into the nose.

  Intravenous
  Into the bloodstream via a vein.

  Intussusception
  A condition in which one part of the intestine 'telescopes' into another. illustration of intussusception

  Iris
  The colored portion of the eye is called the iris. As with humans, dogs' iris colors vary. In the center of the iris is the black opening called the pupil. This opening can be made larger or smaller by muscles called ciliary bodies, that attach to the colored iris, causing it to expand or contract.

  Isoflavone
  An estrogen-like substance produced by pasture plants; a type of phytoestrogen.

  Jaundice
  The condition in which there is a buildup of waste products in the body called bilirubin. Bilirubin is yellow in color, therefore, an animal with jaundice will have yellow gums, skin (often seen on the inside flap of the ear), and a yellowish cast to the 'whites' of the eyes. It can occur if a large number of red blood cells are destroyed, the liver is not functioning normally, or the bile ducts are blocked.

  Jejunum
  The longest part of the small intestine extending from the duodenum to the ileum.

  Jill
  A female ferret.

  Jugular
  Referring to the neck; specifically, the large jugular veins that return blood from the head and neck to the heart.

  KCS
  Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the technical term for a condition also known as 'dry eye.' It occurs because of inadequate tear production. Symptoms include a thick, yellowish discharge from the eye.

  Keratitis
  Inflammation of the cornea of the eye; may be caused by infection, trauma, or an allergic reaction.

  Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
  Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is the technical term for a condition also known as 'dry eye'. It occurs because of inadequate tear production. Symptoms include a thick, yellowish discharge from the eye.

  Keratolytic
  Softens and loosens crusts and scales on the skin. 

  Ketoacidosis
  A life-threatening condition in which ketones, which result from the breakdown of fat for energy, accumulate in the bloodstream and the pH of the blood decreases.

  Killed vaccine
  Vaccines which are made by taking the real, disease-causing viruses (or bacteria), killing them, and putting them into a liquid base. Compare with 'modified live vaccine' and 'recombinant vaccine.'

  Kinetic skull
  Having mobile joints between various parts of the skull, e.g., being able to unhinge the jaws. This allows the mouth of the animal, e.g., snake, to open wider so that it can eat large prey.

  Kit
  A baby ferret.

  Lactating
  Producing milk.

  Large intestine
  The lower part of the intestinal tract, usually made up of the colon, cecum, and rectum. Bacteria that live harmlessly in the large intestine help to digest complex carbohydrates.

  Larva
  The worm-like offspring of an insect (plural larvae).

  Larynx
  The larynx is a muscular tube in the neck that allows air to pass from the throat to the trachea (windpipe). The larynx contains the vocal cords, which allow people and animals to make sounds. The larynx has cartilage that opens to allow air into the trachea.

  Latent
  A dormant stage of disease; the patient is infected with an organism, but is not yet ill.

  Leukopenia
  A condition in which the numbers of white blood cells in the blood are lower than normal.

  Lichenification
  Thickening and hardening of the skin.

  Lipase
  Digestive enzyme, produced by the pancreas, which breaks down fat.

  Liver
  The largest organ in the abdomen, responsible for producing enzymes required for digestion of food, and bile that helps to digest fat. The liver also detoxifies the blood and may be damaged in the process.

  Low passage vaccine
  A low passage vaccine contains virus particles which have been attenuated, or weakened, less than those in the 'average' vaccine. Low passage vaccines can generally elicit an immune system response in young animals who have a maternal antibody level that would prevent them from responding to an 'average' vaccine.

  Lymph nodes
  Part of the immune system of an animal. Small masses of tissue that contain white blood cells called lymphocytes. Blood from the nearby area is filtered through the lymph node allowing foreign or infectious material to be recognized and destroyed if possible.

  Lymphocytes
  The class of cells in the body which are responsible for mounting an immune response. Two main types are B cells and T cells.

  Lymphokines
  Chemicals produced by T lymphocytes. Some lymphokines signal macrophages and other phagocytes to destroy foreign invaders.

  Macrophage
  A type of phagocyte (cell in the body which 'eats' damaged cells and foreign substances such as virus and bacteria).

  Malabsorption syndrome
  Maldigestion syndrome: A condition involving the intestine in which food may not be properly digested or the nutrients not absorbed.

  Malignant
  A process that does harm to nearby tissues. Usually synonymous with cancer, a tumor that grows quickly and spreads into other tissues.

  Malnutrition
  Ill health due to dietary deficiency or imbalance.

  Mammary
  Pertaining to the breast.

  Mandible
  Lower jaw.

  Mange
  Any of several skin and ear conditions caused by a variety of mites.

  MAOIs
  Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Substances that inactivate the enzyme monoamine oxidase which regulates certain transmitter chemicals between nerves. These compounds include certain types of antidepressants and also insecticides containing amitraz (such as Mitaban and Preventic collars).

  Marsupial
  An order of mammals including kangaroos, opossums, and sugar gliders in which the female has a pouch on the abdomen which holds the young and has nipples for the young to nurse.

  Mast cell tumor
  A nodular growth, usually on the skin, which involves cells (mast cells) which contain large amounts of histamine and normally play a role in allergic reactions. All mast cell tumors in dogs should be considered potentially malignant.

  Masticate
  Chew.

  Mastitis
  An infection or inflammation of the mammary glands.

  Maternal antibody
  Antibody in a newborn animal which the newborn acquired through the placenta or colostrum (the first milk).

  Meal
  When referring to food ingredients, meal means a ground-up preparation. Chicken meal is ground up chicken, which might include bones and feathers. Meat meal means ground up muscle meat.

  Median survival time
  Time at which 50% of the animals had died.

  Megacolon
  A condition in which the colon enlarges and dilates, which results in feces accumulating in the colon. Constipation then occurs. This condition is more common in cats than dogs.

  Melena
  Darkening of the stool due to the presence of digested blood, which indicates bleeding is occurring in the stomach and/or beginning of the small intestine. The feces generally look black and tarry.

  Memory
  (Immunologic) Memory: When an animal mounts an immune response against a foreign substance, some cells are created to 'remember' the antigens on that substance. If the animal is again exposed to the substance, these cells will help the body respond much faster and to a higher degree.

  Metabolic acidosis
  A condition in which the pH of the blood is too acidic because of the production of certain types of acids.

  Metabolize
  To have molecules transformed within the body tissue through chemical processes.

  Metabolize energy (ME)
  (ME) is the net energy available to an animal from a certain food.

  Metacarpus
  The front limb between the carpus and the phalanges (toes).

  Metastasis
  Spread of a tumor from its original location to a remote one, by tumor cells that are carried in the blood.

  Metatarsus
  The part of the rear limb between the tarsus and the phalanges (toes). 

  Methemoglobin
  An altered hemoglobin which does not carry oxygen.

  Methemoglobinemia
  A condition of the blood in which there are large amounts of methemoglobin which is an altered hemoglobin which does not carry oxygen.

  Microfilaremia
  The presence of microfilariae in the blood.

  Microfilaria
  The larval form of some parasitic worms, for example heartworms. These worms do not lay eggs, they produce microfilariae (plural of microfilaria) instead.

  Microfilaricide
  Compound which kills microfilaria, the immature forms of heartworms which circulate in the blood.

  Microorganism
  A single-celled life form that is invisible to the naked eye and that may cause disease in man or animals.

  Mineralization
  The process in which minerals are laid down within tissue in an abnormal pattern causing a hardening of the tissue.

  Mineralocorticoids
  Hormones produced by the adrenal gland which regulate the amounts of sodium, potassium, and chloride in the blood.

  Miticide
  An agent that kills mites.

  Mitochondria
  Parts of the cell which are responsible for providing the cell with energy.

  mL
  Short for milliliter. A liquid measure, the same volume as a cc. 28 mL = 1 liquid oz.

  Modified live vaccine
  Vaccines which are made by taking the real, disease-causing virus and altering (attenuating) it in a laboratory to a non-disease causing virus. Compare with 'killed vaccine' and 'recombinant vaccine.'

  Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
  (MAOI): Substances that inactivate the enzyme monoamine oxidase which regulates certain transmitter chemicals between nerves. These compounds include certain types of antidepressants and also insecticides containing amitraz (such as Mitaban and Preventic collars).

  Monovalent vaccine
  A vaccine that is manufactured to stimulate the body to produce protection against only one disease, e.g., rabies vaccine. Compare with 'multivalent vaccine.'

  Motility
  Movement, e.g., intestinal motility is the muscular contractions of the intestines which move the food from the stomach to the anus.

  Mucolytic
  Breaks down mucous.

  Mucopolysaccharide
  A carbohydrate which also contains a hexosamine molecule and is a component of mucous.

  Mucosa
  Specialized membrane which covers various passages and cavities exposed to the air such as the mouth, nose, inner portion of the eyelids, vagina. Examination of the mucous membranes can provide important information: if they are dry, the animal is likely dehydrated; pale, and the animal may be anemic or in shock; yellow, and the animal is said to jaundiced due to accumulation of waste products which should be eliminated by the liver. Mucous membranes.

  Mucous membranes
  Specialized membrane which covers various passages and cavities exposed to the air such as the mouth, nose, inner portion of the eyelids, vagina. Examination of the mucous membranes can provide important information: if they are dry, the animal is likely dehydrated; pale, and the animal may be anemic or in shock; yellow, and the animal is said to be jaundiced due to accumulation of waste products which should be eliminated by the liver.

  Multivalent vaccine
  A vaccine that combines two or more components to stimulate the body to produce protection against all the components. Most 'distemper' vaccines for puppies are of the multivalent type, and commonly include distemper, parvovirus, adenovirus cough, hepatitis, and parainfluenza. Compare with 'monovalent' vaccine.

  Musculoskeletal
  Pertaining to the muscles and skeleton.

  Myasthenia gravis
  Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disease in which there is a failure of the nerves' ability to stimulate and control the actions of certain muscles. See article: Myasthenia gravis in Puppies.

  Mycosis
  Disease caused by a fungus such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and ringworm.

  Mydriasis
  Small pupil size.

  Myelogram
  Radiograph (x-ray) of the spinal cord taken after a contrasting dye has been injected into the space around the spinal cord.

  Myocardium
  The middle layer of heart muscle. 

  Nauplii
  Newly hatched brine shrimp.

  Nebulize
  Convert into a fine spray form.

  Necropsy
  Postmortem examination.

  Necrosis
  The death and breakdown of cells.

  Nematodes
  A common name for any roundworm of the phylum Nematoda.

  Neoplasia
  Abnormal growth and accumulation of cells. Neoplasias may be benign or malignant.

  Nephropathy
  Any disease or abnormal functioning of the kidney.

  Nephrotoxic
  Destructive to kidney cells.

  Neuropathy
  Abnormal functioning of nerves.

  Neurotransmitter
  Chemical used as a messenger from one nerve cell to another.

  Neuter
  Sterilization by surgical removal of the testicles of a male animal or ovaries of a female animal.

  Neutralize
  To change from acidic or alkaline to a neutral pH. 

  NIDDM
  Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM): A type of diabetes mellitus in which although the blood glucose levels are higher than normal, they are not immediately life-threatening, and the animal can survive without supplemental insulin. Also called Type II diabetes.

  Nocturnal
  Animals that are active during the night and sleep during the day.

  Nodule
  Solid bump or lump in the skin that is over 1/3 inch in diameter.

  Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
  NSAIDS: Agents which reduce inflammation, but are not in the class of drugs known as steroids. Examples include aspirin, Rimadyl, and phenylbutazone.

  Noncore vaccine
  Vaccine which should only be given to animals at increased risk of exposure to a disease, example, leptospirosis in dogs or feline leukemia in cats (see core vaccine).

  Nonpathogenic
  Not causing disease. Some bacteria, such as those that normally live in an animal's intestines, are nonpathogenic.

  Nonseptic
  A condition not caused by an infection. For example, septic arthritis is caused by an infection with bacteria, yeast, or other agent; a case of nonseptic arthritis may be caused by injury or cancer.

  Nucleated erythrocytes
  Immature form of red blood cells.

  Nutraceutical
  A very broad term describing certain components in food (plant or animal) or nutritional supplements, which contain substances normally present in the body that aid in the proper functioning of body systems.

  Nutrient
  Compounds in foods which are essential for life. Nutrients include protein, fats, vitamins, minerals, etc.

  Nystagmus
  Constant involuntary movement of the eye, often from side to side.

  Obligate carnivore
  An animal that requires in its diet nutrients that are found in sufficient quantities only in meat or other animal products.

  Obsessive compulsive
  A behavioral condition in which a pet repeatedly performs an action out of context. It is thought that the behavior is an expression of stress, frustration and/or conflict. Certain breeds are more prone to these behaviors. The behaviors include tail-chasing, some cases of excessive barking, continual licking, and biting the air as if snapping at an invisible fly.

  Occult
  Indicating a disease or condition that is clinically not apparent.

  Ocular
  Relating to the eye. 

  Off label
  Term used to describe the use of a medication for a condition for which it was not FDA approved. A large number of medications used in veterinary medicine are used 'off label.' If veterinarians only used FDA approved medications, options for treatments of certain conditions would be severely limited or nonexistent. The safety and efficacy of off-label uses of medications is often determined in university research settings, but the manufacturer of the drug does submit the results or go through the elaborate FDA approval process.

  Offal
  Animal organs rejected at slaughter as unfit for human consumption, e.g., spleen, intestine, brain, lungs.

  Omnivore
  Animal that eats both flesh and plants.

  Opioid
  Narcotic drug which has an activity similar to that of opium.

  Oral hypoglycemic
  A medication, given by mouth, which lowers the level of glucose in the blood. Example: glipizide.

  Osmotic diuretic
  A compound that increases the amount of urine formed and rids the body of excess fluid by being filtered through the kidney into the urine in concentrated amounts and carrying water with it.

  Osteomyelitis
  An inflammation and infection of the bone.

  Otic
  Pertaining to the ear.

  Ototoxic
  Destructive to the structures of the ear.

  Over the counter
  Can be purchased without a prescription, like aspirin and vitamins.

  Ovulate
  The release of an egg from the ovary of the female.

  Oxidize
  To combine with oxygen. 

  Oxytocin
  A hormone that stimulates milk flow in lactating mammals (females nursing their young), and contractions of the muscles of the reproductive tract in many species.

  Packed cell volume
  (PCV), hematocrit: A laboratory test to monitor the relative number of red blood cells present in the blood. A blood sample is placed in a tiny glass tube and spun in a centrifuge. The cells are heavier than the plasma and are compacted at one end of the tube. After the tube is spun, it is examined and the packed cell volume is determined as the percentage of the red cellular portion relative to the total amount of blood in the tube (i.e., remainder being the plasma). The normal for dogs is 40-59 and cats is 29-50.

  Palatable
  Tasty; refers to food that is readily accepted.

  Palpation
  To examine with the hands or fingers.

  Pancreatitis
  Inflammation of the pancreas, a severe and sometimes life threatening disease often associated with eating fatty foods. Symptoms include vomiting and a painful abdomen.

  Pannus
  A chronic condition of the eye in which blood vessels grow across the cornea (the clear surface of the eye). The cornea looks hazy and sometimes reddened; it may eventually take on a dark pigment. This condition is also called chronic superficial keratitis.

  Papule
  Solid bump on the skin, less than 1/3 inch in diameter.

  Paralysis
  Loss of motor function (movement) in a certain part of the body. Paralysis may be flaccid, in which muscles are weak and have little or no tone; or spastic, in which the muscles are tight.

  Parasiticide
  Medication formulated to kill parasites.

  Parasympathetic
  The portion of the nervous system which stimulates the pancreas to produce digestive enzymes and stimulates many of the smooth muscles in the body including those of the stomach and intestine. It also tends to slow the heart rate.

  Parenterally
  A term used to describe the administration of a drug by means other than by mouth.

  Paresis
  Slight or incomplete paralysis. 

  Parthenogenesis
  A form of reproduction in which the egg develops into a new individual without fertilization by sperm. Parthenogenesis has been observed in many lower animals, including some snails and insects.

  Parturition
  The act of giving birth.

  Passive immunity
  Immunity produced by providing an animal with antibodies or immunologic cells from another source, such as colostrum. Compare with 'active immunity.'

  Pathogenic
  Causing disease.

  Pathologist
  A specialist in veterinary medicine who examines the changes in body tissues and organs caused by disease.

  PCV
  Packed cell volume. PCV, hematocrit: A laboratory test to monitor the relative number of red blood cells present in the blood. A blood sample is placed in a tiny glass tube and spun in a centrifuge. The cells are heavier than the plasma and are compacted at one end of the tube. After the tube is spun, it is examined and the packed cell volume is determined as the percentage of the red cellular portion relative to the total amount of blood in the tube (i.e., remainder being the plasma). The normal for dogs is 40-59 and cats is 29-50.

  Pediculosis
  An infestation of lice.

  Penicillinase
  An enzyme produced by some bacteria which inactivates certain types of penicillin thus making the bacteria resistant to them.

  Perianal fistula
  A deep infection around the anus which often results in ulcers and deep draining tracts, most commonly seen in German Shepherds.

  Perineal
  The area between the anus and the genital organs.

  Peritoneal dialysis
  A process used to remove waste products from the body. Electrolyte fluids are administered into the abdomen, waste products of the body enter the fluids, and then the fluids are removed.

  Peritoneum
  The membrane lining the wall of the abdominal cavity. 

  Peritonitis
  Inflammation of the lining of the abdomen.

  Phagocyte
  Cell in the body which 'eats' damaged cells and foreign substances such as virus and bacteria. A macrophage is a type of phagocyte.

  Phalanges
  Toes. 

  Pheromone
  Chemical secreted by an animal and sensed by another animal of the same species, and often causing behavior change in that animal.

  Photoperiod
  The number of hours of light per 24-hour period.

  Photosensitivity
  A condition in which the skin reacts abnormally to light, especially ultraviolet light or sunlight. It is usually caused by the interaction of light with certain chemicals in the skin such as antibiotics, other medications, hormones, or toxins.

  Phytochemical
  Substances in plants which affect a body system and may promote health and decrease the risk of a disease such as cancer.

  Phytoestrogen
  Substances which have an activity similar to estrogens and are produced by plants.

  Pica
  Craving to eat unnatural articles such as rocks or dirt.

  Placebo
  A substance which is given that has no therapeutic value; often called a 'dummy pill' or 'sugar pill.' Often given to half of the patients in a trial of a new drug, to better assess the effectiveness of the new drug.

  Plantigrade stance
  Standing and walking with the hocks on or almost touching the floor.

  Plaque
  A build-up of bacteria, saliva, and food on the teeth. See also Tartar.

  Plastron
  The lower hard shell-like structure which protects the abdomen of a turtle or tortoise.

  Platelets
  Cellular components found in the blood which help clots to form. In the body, microscopically small vessels often break in the normal course of events. Platelets and a protein called fibrinogen 'plug' the break in the vessel and prevent blood from leaking out.

  Polyarthritis
  Arthritis which involves two or more joints.

  Polydactyl
  The presence of extra toes.

  Polydipsia
  Excessive thirst resulting in excessive drinking.

  Polyestrous
  During one sexual season, continuing to come into heat if not bred. Cats are polyestrous, dogs are not.

  Polyp
  A small growth from mucous membranes such as those lining the nasal cavity and intestinal tract.

  Polyphagia
  Excessive ingestion of food.

  Polyuria
  Excessive urination.

  Posterior
  Positioned in back of another body part, or towards the rear half of the animal. Opposite of anterior.

  Postoperative
  After surgery.

  Prepuce
  The sheath of skin which covers the penis.

  Proestrus
  The stage of the estrus cycle, right before an animal comes into heat.

  Progesterone
  A hormone produced by the ovaries which is responsible for the continuation of pregnancy.

  Prognosis
  The forecasted outcome and recovery.

  Prolactin
  Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the growth of mammary tissue and the production of milk.

  Prolapsed rectum
  Because of irritation or injury, the inner part of the rectum is pushed out so that it is visible as a pink mass protruding from the anal opening.

  Prostaglandin
  Several types of chemicals made by cells which have specific functions such as controlling body temperature, stimulating smooth muscle, and influencing heat cycles.

  Protease
  Enzyme which breaks down protein.

  Protozoans
  Single-celled animals invisible to the naked eye. Most are free living and a few are parasites in animals or man.

  Pruritus
  Itching.

  Psittacine
  Birds that belong to the order Psittaciformes. Common psittacines include budgies, cockatiels, lories, cockatoos, conures, amazons, African greys, lovebirds, senegals, and jardines.

  Pulmonary
  Relating to the lungs. 

  Pulmonary arteries
  The large vessels leading from the heart to the lungs.

  Pulmonary edema
  Fluid accumulation in the lungs.

  Pulmonary emboli
  Pulmonary embolism: Blood clot that travels to the blood vessels in the lung and obstructs them.

  Pupa
  A dormant form of an insect (plural pupae). A larva spins a cocoon to protect itself, and becomes a pupa. The pupa does not feed, but gradually changes form and becomes a new adult.

  Pustule
  Small elevated area on the skin filled with pus.

  Pyloroduodenal
  An obstruction in the area where the stomach and small intestine meet.

  Pyoderma
  An infection of the skin; usually the result of a bacterial invasion.

  Pyometra
  An infection of the uterus.

  Queen
  A female cat used for breeding.

  Queening
  In cats, the act of giving birth.

  Rabies
  A fatal virus disease of warm blooded animals including man, that affects the brain and is spread in the saliva of infected animals. Rabid animals have a temperament change. Wild creatures become bold enough to attack human beings, and docile domestic animals may turn on their owners.

  Radiology
  X-ray.

  Reagent grade
  A compound with the purity and quality that allows it to be used in a laboratory.

  Recombinant vaccine
  There are certain antigens on viruses and bacteria which are better at stimulating an antibody response by the animal than others. The genes for these antigens can be isolated, and made to produce large quantities of the antigens they code for. A recombinant vaccine contains these antigens, not the whole organism. Compare with 'modified live vaccine' and 'killed vaccine.'

  Recumbency
  Lying down. 

  Reflex ovulator
  Only ovulating after being bred. Cats are reflex ovulators, dogs are not.

  Regulation
  Using insulin to maintain the blood glucose level of an animal within the acceptable range.

  Regurgitation
  Expelling food from the esophagus.

  Renal
  Pertaining to the kidneys.

  Renal insufficiency
  The decreased ability of the kidneys to rid the body of wastes.

  Resistance
  A term used to describe bacteria which have mutated or changed so they are not affected by an antibiotic that previously killed them or slowed their growth. As more bacteria become resistant to various antibiotics, there are fewer antibiotics which will have an effect on them, thus newer and stronger antibiotics will need to be developed. Inappropriate use of antibiotics (using them too often, for too short a duration or in insufficient dose) may promote the development of resistance.

  Resorption
  In pregnancy, a condition in which the fetus dies, and instead of being aborted, the fetal tissue dissolves within the uterus and is absorbed by the mother. The mother will show no outward signs of a fetal resorption.

  Respiratory
  Relating to breathing or the lungs. 

  Respiratory depression
  Decrease in the rate or depth of respiration.

  Retina
  The rear interior surface of the eyeball is called the retina. The retina contains nerve cells referred to as rods and cones. The rods are sensitive to light and the cones to color. The retina receives the light and color and converts them into nerve impulses which go to the brain.

  Ringworm
  A type of fungal infection of the skin. See article: Ringworm in Dogs and Cats.

  Scale
  Accumulation of loose fragments of the top layer of the skin.

  Schiff-Scherrington posture
  A condition, caused by a lesion in the spinal cord, in which the front legs are held rigid and straight, and the rear legs are weak or paralyzed. Sometimes, the neck may be hyperextended, with the head held up and over the back.

  Sclerosis
  A hardening of tissue, usually the result of chronic inflammation.

  Scute
  In turtles and tortoises, the plates which cover the bony portion of the shell. In snakes, the larger, thicker scales on the underside of the body which provide support, protection, and traction.

  Sebaceous adenitis
  Inflammation of a sebaceous (oil-producing) gland. In dogs, sebaceous glands are found on the top of the tail near its base, and at the junction of mucous membranes with skin. In cats, these glands are found on the chin, lip margins, and the top of the tail.

  Sebaceous gland
  A gland in the skin which produces an oily substance.

  Second generation
  A description of medications developed from an earlier form of the medication. First generation medications were developed from the original form of the drug; second generation medications are adaptations of first generation drugs; third generation drugs are adaptations of second generation, etc.

  Secondary infection
  Infection which occurs because the tissue and its natural defenses have been damaged by another condition.

  Secondary response
  The faster and greater immune response produced by an animal who has previously encountered that specific antigen. Memory cells are responsible for this more efficient response. Also called 'anamnestic response.'

  Seizure threshold
  The level of stimulation at which a seizure is produced. Raising the seizure threshold makes it less likely a seizure will occur.

  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
  (SSRIs), Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Medications which slow down the ability of nerve cells to absorb serotonin, a neurotransmitter (chemical that serves as a messenger between nerves). Example: Prozac.

  Separation anxiety
  A behavioral condition in which the pet becomes anxious when separated from the owner. Dogs with separation anxiety tend to 'shadow' their owners, greet them exuberantly when they return after being gone, and sometimes vocalize, chew destructively, and urinate or defecate when separated from their owners.

  Sepsis
  The presence of toxins in the blood or other tissues; the toxins are produced by bacteria or other microorganisms. 

  Septic
  A condition caused by an infection e.g., with bacteria or fungi, or toxins they produce.

  Septicemia
  A disease affecting many organ systems due to toxins in the blood which are released by bacteria or other microorganisms. Signs include fever, pinpoint bruises on mucous membranes, and lesions in the joints, heart valves, eyes, or other organs.

  Serology
  Laboratory testing for antibody-antigen reactions and antibody levels. 

  Serotype
  A subdivision of a species of microorganism, e.g., a bacteria, based upon its particular antigens.

  Serous
  Thin and watery.

  Serum
  The fluid portion of the blood after it has clotted and the cells have been removed. 

  Shedding
  Shedding (of organisms): A term used to describe the release of organisms (bacteria, protozoa, viruses) into the environment from an infected animal. The organisms may be in the stool, urine, respiratory secretions, or vaginal discharges. The 'shedding' animal may or may not be showing symptoms of disease.

  Skin cytology
  Examination, with a microscope, of a skin scraping or material from swabbing the skin. The material may be stained and checked for the presence of yeast, bacteria, tumor cells, etc.

  Skin scraping
  Scraping some material from the surface of the skin and looking at it under a microscope, e.g., to check for skin mites.

  Smooth muscle
  The type of muscle found in the internal organs such as stomach and intestines (not the heart).

  Soluble carbohydrate
  Also, soluble fiber. Easily digested carbohydrates like starch.

  Somnolence
  Sleepiness, a condition of semiconsciousness approaching coma. 

  Somogyi effect
  A condition in which the blood glucose level increases if too much insulin is given. It occurs when insulin causes the blood glucose level to go so low it stimulates the production of other hormones in the body such as epinephrine, which promote the breakdown of glycogen (the chemical compound which the body uses to store glucose) and increases the blood glucose level above normal. It is also called rebound hyperglycemia or insulin-induced hyperglycemia.

  Spay
  Sterilization by surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus of a female animal.

  Sphincter
  A ring-like band of muscle that constricts a passage or closes an opening, e.g., the anal sphincter constricts to close the anus and relaxes when the animal is passing stool. The urethral sphincter closes the urinary bladder.

  Spirochete
  A type of bacteria which is long, slender, and assumes a spiral shape. Leptospira species and the bacteria that causes Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) are spirochetes.

  Spleen
  Part of the immune system of an animal. A large, tongue-shaped organ in the abdomen containing many lymphocytes. The spleen filters blood and removes damaged cells. It can also manufacture new blood cells if the animal's bone marrow is damaged.

  Squamate
  Scaly-bodied reptile including lizards and snakes.

  SSRI
  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Medications which slow down the ability of nerve cells to absorb serotonin, a neurotransmitter (chemical that serves as a messenger between nerves). Example: Prozac.

  Stasis
  In the gastrointestinal tract, a condition in which the food does not move through normally, but remains in one section, e.g., food does not pass from the stomach into the intestine.

  Status epilepticus
  A condition in which the animal exhibits one severe (Grand Mal) seizure right after another, with no time to recover in-between.

  Stenosis
  The narrowing of an organ of passage such as a blood vessel or intestine.

  Stress-induced hyperglycemia
  A condition in cats in which the blood glucose level becomes abnormally high when the animal is stressed, e.g., in the veterinarian's office.

  Stricture
  The narrowing of an organ of passage such as a blood vessel or intestine.

  Struvite
  A chemical compound, magnesium ammonium phosphate, which is made by the body and can form crystals and stones in the urinary bladder.

  Subcutaneous
  Under the skin; often called 'sub Q.'

  Subluxation
  A partial dislocation of a joint in which the bones become out of alignment, but the joint itself is still intact.

  Substrate
  Relative to the husbandry of reptiles, amphibians, and small mammals, the substrate is the material that lines the bottom of a cage.

  Sulfonamides
  A class of antibiotics which contain sulfur. They are bacteriostatic (they stop the growth (reproduction) of bacteria, but do NOT kill them).

  Superfecundation
  Having a litter with more than one father (or breeding).

  Supraventricular tachycardia
  A condition in which the heart beats very rapidly because of signals coming from the atria (chambers of the heart that receive the blood) or near the junction of the atria with the ventricles (the chambers of the heart that pump the blood to the body or lungs).

  Sympathomimetic
  Producing effects similar to the 'flight or fight' response, which means the body is alerted to a danger of some sort and prepares to basically run or fight. Sympathomimetic effects include increased heart rate, sweating, and increased blood pressure.

  Syncope
  The temporary loss of consciousness; fainting.

  Synergist
  An agent that enhances the action of another.

  Synovial
  Pertaining to a joint made up of bone ends covered with cartilage, ligaments, a cavity filled with synovial fluid (joint fluid) and an outside fibrous capsule, e.g., hip joint, elbow joint.

  Systemic
  Throughout the body.

  T cell
  Also called 'T lymphocytes.' The type of lymphocyte which is responsible for cell-mediated immunity. T cells may directly kill a cell or produce chemicals called lymphokines that activate macrophages which will kill the cell. Compare with 'B cell.'

  Tachycardia
  An abnormally high heart rate.

  Tachypnea
  Rapid breathing.

  Tarsus
  The ankle (rear leg) of dogs and cats; also called the hock. 

  Tartar
  A build-up of bacteria, saliva, and food on the teeth which becomes mineralized, forming a hard coating and eventually causing gum disease and tooth loss. See also 'Plaque.'

  Temporomandibular joint
  The joint between the lower jaw and the skull.

  Third generation
  A description of medications developed from an earlier form of the medication. First generation medications were developed from the original form of the drug; second generation medications are adaptations of first generation drugs; third generation drugs are adaptations of second generation, etc.

  Thrombocytopenia
  A lower than normal number of platelets in the blood. Platelets, which are actually fragments of specific types of cells, are necessary for blood to clot. Signs of thrombocytopenia include bruising and bleeding from the nose, into the gastrointestinal tract, etc.

  Thyrotropin releasing hormone
  Hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the pituitary gland to produce thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone-TSH), which in turn stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. Also called TSH releasing factor or TSH releasing hormone.

  Tissue
  A group of specialized cells that together perform a particular function, e.g., muscle tissue, nerve tissue, bone.

  Titer
  A measurement of the amount of antibodies in the blood. The test to measure antibodies is usually performed by making a number of dilutions of the blood and then measuring at what dilution there is sufficient antibody to react in the test. For example, a titer of 1:8 (one to eight) means the blood can be diluted to one part blood and seven parts saline and still produce a positive reaction in the test. The higher the titer (1:16 is higher than 1:8), the more antibody is present. (NOTE: The word 'titer' may also be used when discussing the amount of antigen present, e.g., a high titer vaccine has a large number of virus particles.)

  Topical
  To be used on the skin.

  Torsion
  The twisting of an organ.

  Toxemia
  A condition in which toxins move into the bloodstream.

  Tracheobronchitis
  Inflammation of the trachea and bronchi.

  Transient
  Temporary. 

  Transport host
  An animal or insect which carries an immature parasite from one mammalian host to another.  

  Tricyclic antidepressant
  A class of antidepressants which work by decreasing the amount of certain chemical transmitters taken up by specific nerve cells. The tricyclic antidepressants include clomipramine, amitriptyline, and nortryptyline and are often used to treat behavioral problems in small animals.

  Tubule
  Microscopic ducts. The tubules in the kidneys help to concentrate the urine.

  Tumor
  Abnormal growth or swelling; term often used to designate cancer.

  Type I diabetes
  A form of diabetes in which so little insulin is produced that supplemental insulin must be given for the animal to live. Also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

  Type II diabetes
  A type of diabetes mellitus in which although the blood glucose levels are higher than normal, they are not immediately life-threatening, and the animal can survive without supplemental insulin. Also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

  Ulcer
  A lesion in which the tissue surface is eroded away.

  Ultrasound
  Ultrasound/ultrasonography: A technique used to get the image of a deep structure within the body by directing ultrasound waves at it and recording the reflections (echoes) from it.

  Umbilicus
  The area of the body where the umbilical cord is attached; the belly button.

  Urate
  A chemical compound which contains uric acid and is made by the body, and can form crystals and stones in the urinary bladder. Uric acid is a waste product from the breakdown of certain proteins.

  Urea
  Wasteproduct of protein metabolism that is removed from the body by the kidneys.

  Urease
  An enzyme that breaks down urea. Urea is a wasteproduct of protein metabolism that is removed from the body by the kidneys.

  Urinary incontinence
  A phrase used to describe the inability to control urination.

  Urinary obstruction
  A blockage in the urinary system, most often occurring in the urethra, the tube that leads from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

  Urinary retention
  A condition in which the urinary bladder does not rid itself of all urine it contains during the process of urination.

  Urticaria
  Hives; development of small swellings which may itch; usually caused by an allergic reaction. 

  USP
  United States Pharmacopeia - a drug regulating agency.

  Uveitis
  Inflammation of the eye.

  Vaccination
  The act of giving a vaccine. See also 'immunization,' since the two words have different meanings and are often confused.

  Vaccine failure
  A term often used to describe a condition in which an animal who was vaccinated against a disease still gets the disease. In truth, there is usually nothing wrong with the vaccine, but for some reason, the animal's immune system did not adequately react to it.

  Vasculitis
  Inflammation of blood vessels.

  Vasoconstriction
  A decrease in the diameter of blood vessels. 

  Vasodilator
  Agent which dilates, or increases the diameter of blood vessels.

  Vena cava
  Either of two large veins carrying blood to the right atrium of the heart. The cranial vena cava brings blood from the head region, front legs, and upper chest to the heart; the caudal (or posterior) vena cava carries blood from the areas of the abdomen and hind legs to the heart.

  Vent
  The outside opening of the cloaca, which is a common passageway for feces, urine, and reproduction.

  Ventricle
  The chambers of the heart that pump the blood to the body or lungs.

  Ventricular arrhythmia
  A heart condition in which the heart beats irregularly and/or at an abnormal rate because of signals coming from the ventricles (chambers of the heart that pump the blood).

  Vertebrate
  Animal with a vertebral column (spine); includes such animals as fish, birds, turtles, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals.

  Vesicle
  Small elevated area on the skin filled with a clear fluid.

  Vestibular system
  Portions of the inner ear, nerves, and brain which help the body maintain balance.

  Villi
  Microscopic projections which cover the intestine, greatly increasing the surface area and therefore, increasing the ability to absorb nutrients. Singular: Villus. Villi illustration

  Virus
  The smallest form of life, invisible with an ordinary microscope. An infectious unit that enters and uses cells of plants or animals for replication. Some viruses cause disease in animals or plants.

  Viscerocutaneous
  Pertaining to the internal organs and skin. 

  Viscosity
  Thickness of a fluid, e.g., molasses is more viscous than water. 

  Vital signs
  The signs of life which are pulse, respiration, and temperature.

  Volvulus
  Twisting of the stomach or intestine, which often has the effect of cutting off the blood supply to it. 

  Vomeronasal organ
  Sensory organ also called 'Jacobson's organ,' which detects pheromones.

  Warm-blooded
  Having a relatively high body temperature that is regulated internally and is independent of the environmental temperature. Mammals and birds are warm-blooded.

  Wart
  Benign growth caused by a virus.

  Wasting
  Loss of muscle mass due to decreased food intake or increased metabolic rate.

  Whelping
  In dogs, the act of giving birth.

  White blood cells
  Cells in the blood whose major role is to defend the body against invading organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. There are different types of leukocytes: lymphocytes are part of the immune system; monocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils eat or engulf organisms; basophils contain histamine and are involved in inflammatory reactions.

  Window of susceptibility
  A time period in the life of a young animal in which the maternal antibodies are too low to provide protection against a certain disease, but too high to allow a vaccine to work and produce immunity.

  Zoonotic
  A disease which can be transmitted between animals and people.

 


Facebook YouTube Blog Connect with us

Subscribe to email newsletters:
featuring helpful articles, tips and online only product specials from Drs. Foster & Smith. Learn more here !

About Us Article Reprints Awards & Memberships Request a FREE Catalog Tell a Friend
Meet Our Staff Terms & Use Site Map Free Newsletters Links to Us
Visit our other websites: Doctors Foster and Smith Pet Supplies LiveAquaria.com - Quality Aquatic Life Direct to Your Door
For product information, call 1-800-826-7206

Copyright © 1997-2013, Foster and Smith, Inc. - 2253 Air Park Road, P.O. Box 100, Rhinelander, Wisconsin, 54501. All rights reserved.