Organophosphates and Carbamates.
Many insecticides including malathion, parathion, diazinon, carbaryl, bendiocarb, propoxur, chlorpyrifos (Dursban), methylcarbamate, chlorfenvinphos, cythioate, dichlorvos, dioxathion, fenthion, ronnel, phosmet, and disulfoton.
Organophosphates and carbamates are used as insecticides. They are the active ingredient in many compounds. They affect the nervous system causing a constant state of nerve stimulation. They are readily absorbed by the skin, the GI tract, and the respiratory system. Onset of symptoms may be a few minutes to several hours after exposure. Death occurs due to respiratory failure. Cats are very sensitive to organophosphates.
Varies depending upon specific type of chemical and route of exposure.
Drooling, vomiting, watery eyes, constricted pupils, anxiety, urination, defecation, diarrhea, depression, difficulty breathing, muscle twitching and tremors, ataxia, tonic-clonic seizures, and death.
If the animal was exposed dermally, bathe and rinse thoroughly. If ingested, induce vomiting only if the pet is awake and alert. Seek veterinary attention.
General treatment: The induction of vomiting may be continued, gastric lavage is performed, and activated charcoal is administered.
Supportive treatment: IV fluids are administered, anticonvulsants are given if the animal has seizures. Atropine and diphenhydramine are given to help counteract symptoms.
Specific treatment: Pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) is administered in cases of organophosphate poisoning. This is not used in a case of carbamate poisoning, as it may make the symptoms worse.
Guarded to poor, depending on the symptoms and toxin.