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Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning in Dogs and Cats
Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith
Poisonings
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Toxin
Organophosphates and Carbamates.

Source
Many insecticides including malathion, parathion, diazinon, carbaryl, bendiocarb, propoxur, chlorpyrifos (Dursban), methylcarbamate, chlorfenvinphos, cythioate, dichlorvos, dioxathion, fenthion, ronnel, phosmet, and disulfoton.

General Information
Organophosphates and carbamates are used as insecticides. They are the active ingredient in many compounds. They affect the nervous system causing a constant state of nerve stimulation. They are readily absorbed by the skin, the GI tract, and the respiratory system. Onset of symptoms may be a few minutes to several hours after exposure. Death occurs due to respiratory failure. Cats are very sensitive to organophosphates.

Toxic Dose
Varies depending upon specific type of chemical and route of exposure.

Signs
Drooling, vomiting, watery eyes, constricted pupils, anxiety, urination, defecation, diarrhea, depression, difficulty breathing, muscle twitching and tremors, ataxia, tonic-clonic seizures, and death.

Immediate Action
If the animal was exposed dermally, bathe and rinse thoroughly. If ingested, induce vomiting only if the pet is awake and alert. Seek veterinary attention.

Veterinary Care
General treatment: The induction of vomiting may be continued, gastric lavage is performed, and activated charcoal is administered.

Supportive treatment: IV fluids are administered, anticonvulsants are given if the animal has seizures. Atropine and diphenhydramine are given to help counteract symptoms.

Specific treatment: Pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) is administered in cases of organophosphate poisoning. This is not used in a case of carbamate poisoning, as it may make the symptoms worse.

Prognosis
Guarded to poor, depending on the symptoms and toxin.

 


Keep this and all other medications out of the reach of children and pets.


If you think your pet has been poisoned...

Contact your veterinarian or one of the Animal Poison Hotlines (listed below) if you think your pet may have accidentally received or been given an overdose of the medication.

**ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center - 24-hour service available throughout North America.
www.aspca.org/apcc

1-888-4ANI-HELP (1-888-426-4435). $65.00 per case, billed to caller's credit card.

Follow-up calls can be made for no additional charge by dialing 888-299-2973.

There is no charge when the call involves a product covered by the Animal Product Safety Service.

**Pet Poison Helpline - 24-hour service available throughout North America for pet owners and veterinary professionals who require assistance with treating a potentially poisoned pet.

1-800-213-6680 ($59.00 per incident). Staffed 24-hours a day.

Updated 6/20/17


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