Pet Education Dogs
Pet Education Dogs Pet Education Dogs Pet Education Dogs

Pet Pharmacy & Pet Meds
Free Shipping on orders over $49
Video Center
Register your shelter with Paws for a Cause at DrsFosterSmith.com
Vaccination Schedules for Dogs and Puppies
Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith
Vaccinations
Print Article | Email Article
Bookmark and Share
Click here for a pdf version of this article. 

springer spaniel receiving a vaccinationVaccines are now being divided into two classes. 'Core' vaccines for dogs are those that should be given to every dog. 'Noncore' vaccines are recommended only for certain dogs. Whether to vaccinate with noncore vaccines depends upon a number of things including the age, breed, and health status of the dog, the potential exposure of the dog to an animal that has the disease, the type of vaccine and how common the disease is in the geographical area where the dog lives or may visit.

The AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents' Report on Cat and Dog Vaccines has recommended that the core vaccines for dogs include distemper, canine adenovirus-2 (hepatitis and respiratory disease), canine parvovirus-2 and rabies.

Noncore vaccines include leptospirosis, coronavirus, canine parainfluenza and Bordetella bronchiseptica (both are causes of 'kennel cough'), and Borrelia burgdorferi (causes Lyme Disease). Consult with your veterinarian to select the proper vaccines for your dog or puppy.

AVMA Vaccination Recommendations for Dogs
Component Class Efficacy Length of Immunity Risk/Severity of Adverse Effects Comments
Canine Distemper Core High > 1 year for modified live virus (MLV) vaccines Low  
Measles Noncore High in preventing disease, but not in preventing infection Long Infrequent Use in high risk environments for canine distemper in puppies 4-10 weeks of age
Parvovirus Core High > 1 year Low  
Hepatitis Core High > 1 year Low Only use canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) vaccines
Rabies Core High Dependent upon type of vaccine Low to moderate  
Respiratory disease from canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) Noncore Not adequately studied Short Minimal If vaccination warranted, boost annually or more frequently
Parainfluenza Noncore Intranasal MLV - Moderate Injectable MLV - Low Moderate Low Only recommended for dogs in kennels, shelters, shows, or large colonies; If vaccination warranted, boost annually or more frequently
Bordetella Noncore Intranasal MLV - Moderate Injectable MLV - Low Short Low For the most benefit, use intranasal vaccine 2 weeks prior to exposure
Leptospirosis Noncore Variable Short High Up to 30% of dogs may not respond to vaccine
Coronavirus Noncore Low Short Low Risk of exposure high in kennels, shelters, shows, breeding facilities
Lyme Noncore Appears to be limited to previously unexposed dogs; variable Revaccinate annually Moderate  

A possible vaccination schedule for the 'average' dog is shown below.

Dog Vaccination Schedule
Age Vaccination
5 weeks Parvovirus: for puppies at high risk of exposure to parvo, some veterinarians recommend vaccinating at 5 weeks. Check with your veterinarian.
6 & 9 weeks Combination vaccine* without leptospirosis.
Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern.
12 weeks or older Rabies: Given by your local veterinarian (age at vaccination may vary according to local law).
12 & 15 weeks** Combination vaccine
Leptospirosis: include leptospirosis in the combination vaccine where leptospirosis is a concern, or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern.
Lyme: where Lyme disease is a concern or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
Adult (boosters)§ Combination vaccine
Leptospirosis: include leptospirosis in the combination vaccine where leptospirosis is a concern, or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern.
Lyme: where Lyme disease is a concern or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
Rabies: Given by your local veterinarian (time interval between vaccinations may vary according to local law).
*A combination vaccine, often called a 5-way vaccine, usually includes adenovirus cough and hepatitis, distemper, parainfluenza, and parvovirus. Some combination vaccines may also include leptospirosis (7-way vaccines) and/or coronavirus. The inclusion of either canine adenovirus-1 or adenovirus-2 in a vaccine will protect against both adenovirus cough and hepatitis; adenovirus-2 is highly preferred.

**Some puppies may need additional vaccinations against parvovirus after 15 weeks of age. Consult with your local veterinarian.

§ According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, dogs at low risk of disease exposure may not need to be boostered yearly for most diseases. Consult with your local veterinarian to determine the appropriate vaccination schedule for your dog. Remember, recommendations vary depending on the age, breed, and health status of the dog, the potential of the dog to be exposed to the disease, the type of vaccine, whether the dog is used for breeding, and the geographical area where the dog lives or may visit.

Bordetella and parainfluenza: For complete canine cough protection, we recommend Intra-Trac II ADT. For dogs that are shown, in field trials, or are boarded, we recommend vaccination every six months with Intra-Trac II ADT.

Researchers at the Veterinary Schools at the University of Minnesota, Colorado State University, and University of Wisconsin suggest alternating vaccinations in dogs from year to year. Instead of using multivalent vaccines (combination vaccines against more than one disease), they recommend using monovalent vaccines which only have one component, e.g., a vaccine that only contains parvovirus. So, one year your dog would be vaccinated against distemper, the next year against canine adenovirus-2, and the third year against parvovirus. Then the cycle would repeat itself. Other researchers believe we may not have enough information to recommend only vaccinating every 3 years. Manufacturers of dog vaccines have not changed their labeling which recommends annual vaccinations. Again, each dog owner must make an informed choice of when to vaccinate, and with what. Consult with your veterinarian to help you make the decision.

 
References and Further Reading

Klingborg, DJ; Hustead, DR; Curry-Galvin, EA; Gumley, NR; Henry, SC; Bain, FT; et al. AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents' report on cat and dog vaccines. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. November 15, 2002 (Volume 221, No. 10); 1401-1407.

American Animal Hospital Association. 2006 canine vaccine guidelines, revised. http://www.aahanet.org/PublicDocuments/VaccineGuidelines06Revised.pdf.


RELATED ARTICLES:
AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents' Report on Cat and Dog Vaccines 
Dog Vaccinations and 'Puppy Shots': Dog Vaccine Schedule for Routine Vaccinations
Click here for a pdf version of this article.   
Print Article | Email Article
 

Facebook YouTube Blog Connect with us

Subscribe to email newsletters:
featuring helpful articles, tips and online only product specials from Drs. Foster & Smith. Learn more here !

About Us Article Reprints Awards & Memberships Request a FREE Catalog Tell a Friend
Meet Our Staff Terms & Use Site Map Free Newsletters Links to Us
Visit our other websites: Doctors Foster and Smith Pet Supplies LiveAquaria.com - Quality Aquatic Life Direct to Your Door
For product information, call 1-800-826-7206

Copyright © 1997-2013, Foster and Smith, Inc. - 2253 Air Park Road, P.O. Box 100, Rhinelander, Wisconsin, 54501. All rights reserved.