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Causes of Skin Ulcers & Draining, Oozing or Crusty Lesions on Dogs
Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith
Skin Lesions
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Cleaning a hot spot behind the ear of a dog Crusty nose on a dog

The first sign of a skin problem may be a crusty area on the skin, nose, or foot. In other cases, skin problems which may start out small can progress and develop into more extensive lesions. They may open, drain, and then develop a crusty surface. In some instances there may be hair loss, and the surface of the skin can become red and oozing, and ulcers may develop. Most of the conditions which can cause these lesions are included in the table below. This extensive listing helps you understand why a quick diagnosis may be difficult to make and various diagnostic tests may need to be performed. The most common conditions causing these lesions are color-coded gray in the table (some may be more common in certain geographical areas).



 
Condition Description Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment
Abscesses Accumulation of pus; may or may not be caused by an infection; in cats often due to bite wounds These may appear as firm or fluid-filled nodules of varying shapes and sizes; if due to infection, the animal may have fever, loss of appetite, depression; may open and drain History, physical exam, needle aspirate Surgically open, drain and flush; if infected, administer appropriate antibiotics

Acral lick dermatitis (neurodermatitis)

Self-licking in dogs results in self-trauma; possible causes include anxiety, boredom, stress (e.g., new member in household); licking can develop into an obsessive behavior

Red, hairless, well-circumscribed, sometimes raised lesion usually on leg; if chronic, will drain

Exclude other causes; history important

Relieve underlying cause e.g., anxiety; restrict licking, e.g., elizabethan collar; behavior modifying medication may be necessary

Aspergillosis Fungal infection which usually enters through the nose Ulcerated, draining lesion on nose; also see drainage from nostrils and pain Microscopic examination of drainage; biopsy; blood tests Antifungal medications

Bacterial infection (pyoderma)

See Impetigo, Folliculitis, Staph hypersensitivity, Pyoderma-deep

Often occurs as a result of another condition such as a parasite, allergic, or hormonal condition

     
Basal cell tumors Cancerous, slow-growing tumor which rarely metastasizes; seen in older dogs Single, sometimes fluid-filled nodules which may ulcerate; usually on the head, neck, and chest; may be hyperpigmented Biopsy Surgical removal
Bee, wasp, hornet stings Skin reactions can vary dramatically in severity Immediately after the bite, swelling, redness, pain, possible itching; subsequently may develop extensive ulcers with draining; may develop hives or anaphylaxis History, physical exam Antihistamines, steroids; wet dressings, if ulcerated; protect the area from self-inflicted trauma
Bite wounds

See Abscesses

       
Blastomycosis Fungal disease, more common in the Midwest; transmitted by inhaling fungal spores from soil Ulcerated draining lesions; fever, loss of appetite, weight loss; often see respiratory signs; may cause blindness or affect bones and cause lameness Microscopic examination of drainage or respiratory secretions; blood tests Itraconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B; must provide supportive care and adequate nutrition
Bowen's disease A rare type of squamous cell carcinoma in which multiple lesions develop Lesions start out as thickened, dark, raised, and well-delineated; progress to ulcers and crusts and bleed easily; lesions found on the head, neck, shoulders, forelegs, mouth, and genital areas Biopsy Lesions may come and go and are not always treated; some anti-cancer drugs and radiation have been tried with mixed results
Burns Appearance and treatment depend upon severity of burn Lesions may not appear until 24-48 hours after the exposure; skin hard and dry; blisters rarely seen; if severe, (full thickness of the skin is affected) see necrosis and sloughing of skin 7-14 days after the burn occurs History, physical examination Immediately cool affected area, if burn occurred in the last 2 hours; further treatment depends on severity; keep area clean; prevent secondary infections, topical silver sulfadiazine is useful; treat other symptoms which may occur: dehydration, shock, etc.; pain management; no steroids
Calcinosis cutis Mineralization of the skin usually due to an excess of corticosteroids; also rarely occurs in kidney failure, or in granulomas and tumors Hard nodules and papules usually on the back, groin, or axilla ulcerate, drain, and develop crusts; severe itching; may become infected; often see other signs of Cushing's disease Skin scrapings, biopsy, history, and other clinical signs, adrenal gland function tests If due to glandular tumors, selegiline, o,p-DDD (Mitotane), or surgical removal of tumor; if due to high steroid doses, withdraw use of steroids slowly
Canine acne Deep inflammation of hair follicles; exact cause unknown; usually in young dogs; may see secondary bacterial infection Papules, and sometimes draining lesions on chin and lips Skin biopsy Mild: benzoyl peroxide; Severe: also treat with antibiotics
Coccidioidomycosis Caused by the fungus Coccidioides immitis found in the soil in the Southwestern U.S. Draining nodules over infected bones; usually see respiratory signs, fever, weight loss Microscopic examination of drainage; blood tests Ketoconazole, itraconazole
Cold agglutinin disease Rare disease in which proteins in the blood coagulate in cold temperature and block small blood vessels causing skin damage; may be a result of lead poisoning or autoimmune disease Redness, ulcers, possibly necrosis; lesions usually on ears, tail, and extremities History of exposure to cold; special blood tests including the Coomb's test; biopsy Treat any underlying cause; avoid cold; steroids and immunosuppressants
Cryptococcosis Fungal infection often transmitted through bird droppings; more common in dogs with suppressed immune systems Nodules often over the nose, which may ulcerate; many other signs depending on what other body systems are infected Microscopic exam of discharge, blood tests, culture, biopsy; look for underlying cause of immunosuppression Itraconazole

Demodectic mange (red mange, puppy mange)

Infection with the Demodex mite - occurs when the immune system is deficient

Hair loss, scaliness, redness, pustules, ulcers, sometimes itching, darkening of the skin

Skin scraping and microscopic examination

NO Steroids!

Amitraz (Mitaban) dips

Dermatomyositis Some breeds predisposed; cause unknown; aggravated by trauma and UV light Redness, scaling, crusting, hair loss, and scarring on face, ears, and tail; atrophy of muscles involved in chewing Skin biopsy Minimize trauma and exposure to UV light; Vitamin E, fatty acids, short term use of prednisone, oxpentoxifylline; some severe cases do not respond to treatment, and euthanasia may be considered
Dermoid sinus Congenital condition in which there is an opening from the skin toward the area of the spinal cord; may be a blind sac or actually connect to the spinal canal; more common in Rhodesian Ridgebacks Tuft of hair protrudes from small opening over the spine, often have accumulations of thick oily substance Breed and physical exam; radiographs to determine the depth of the tract that leads from the opening; may see meningitis or nervous system symptoms Blind sac: no treatment; if connects with the spinal canal, surgery
Dracunculiasis Nodule formed around the parasitic worm Dracunculus insignis (Guinea worm) Single or multiple nodules on limbs, head, and belly; nodules may drain Clinical signs; opening nodule and finding the female worm (1-4 feet in length!) Surgical removal
Drug or injection reaction Rare skin reaction to a drug which is inhaled, given orally, or applied topically; more common with penicillins, sulfonamides, and cephalosporins; usually occurs within 2 weeks of giving the drug Can vary widely and may include itching, hair loss, redness, swelling, papules, crusts, ulcers, and draining wounds History of being treated with a drug, symptoms, biopsy Discontinue offending drug; treat symptomatically
Ear margin dermatosis More common in Dachshunds and dogs with pendulous ears; may be secondary to other disease such as hypothyroidism or chronic ear infections Seborrhea and crusts on the edges of the ear flap Clinical signs, breed, skin biopsy, look for underlying cause Antiseborrheic shampoos
Epidermal metabolic necrosis (necrolytic migratory erythema, hepatocutaneous disease) Uncommon skin disease in older dogs; skin lesions develop in dogs with certain diseases including liver disease, diabetes mellitus, and some pancreatic tumors Reddened, often ulcerated areas with hair loss and crusts; foot pads may be thickened Biopsy; look for underlying disease Treat underlying disease; supportive therapy; poor prognosis
Epitheliotrophic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) Rare cancer of T lymphocytes seen in older dogs Can take multiple forms: redness with itching and scales; ulcers and loss of pigment; one or more nodules; oral ulcers Needle or other biopsy Poor response to treatments which include chemotherapy, surgical removal, retinoids, fatty acids
Erythema multiforme Hypersensitivity reaction to infections or drugs; may also be caused by cancer or other diseases Hair loss, 'bull's-eye' lesions, and vesicles often around mouth, ears, groin, and axilla; in some instances, ulcers develop; depression, fever History, clinical signs, rule out other diseases causing similar signs; skin biopsy Treat or remove underlying cause
Fibrosarcoma Rapidly growing, invasive tumor; may occur at the site of a vaccination or injection Irregular-shaped, firm nodule; may ulcerate Biopsy Surgical removal, however, since tumor is invasive need to remove large area around tumor, sometimes including large masses of muscle and bone; if tumor is on a leg, amputation of the leg is commonly recommended; surgery may be combined with chemotherapy and radiation

Flea allergy dermatitis (flea bite hypersensitivity)

Severe reaction by the animal to the saliva of the flea

Intense itching, redness, hair loss, papules, crusts, and scales; sometimes development of infection or hot spots

Presence of fleas; reaction to intradermal testing

Flea control in the environment and on the dog; steroids and antihistamines for the itching

Folliculitis Infection of the hair follicles, often with staph bacteria; symptoms usually appear on skin with less hair, such as the abdomen Pustules form in follicles and break open to form 'bull's-eye,' 'annular,' and 'target lesions,' which have crusty centers and red or darkening on the periphery, and 'epidermal collarettes,' which appear as rings of scaly skin; may itch; short-coated breeds may develop small tufts of hair which are lost; breeds with long coats may have seborrhea Skin scraping; culture; biopsy Antibiotics for at least 4 weeks - continue antibiotics 10 days beyond the apparent cure; if recurs, look for underlying problem such as allergy or hormonal imbalance
Foreign body sinus (see Granuloma)        
Frostbite Appearance and treatment depend upon severity of exposure Ears, tail tips, feet, and scrotum most often affected; when frozen skin is pale and cold; upon thawing, areas are red and painful; if severe, the skin may be sloughed (1-2 weeks later) History, clinical signs Rapidly thaw affected areas with warm water; surgical intervention if severe. Avoid thawing and refreezing, since this results in extensive skin damage.
Granulomas May be due to infections; the body's reaction to foreign material such as plant material (e.g., foxtail) and suture material; other constant irritation; or unknown causes Solid firm nodules of varying sizes; those due to foreign bodies often have draining tracts; may develop hair loss, ulcers and secondary infections History, clinical signs, biopsy, surgical exploratory Surgical removal of the foreign body (in the case of plant material, tracts may be extensive and require major surgery); antibiotics, if infected; treat any other underlying cause
Hemangiosarcoma Malignant, invasive tumor more common on sun-damaged skin Blue to reddish black nodule; usually on chest or abdomen; often ulcerate Biopsy Surgical removal; need to remove large area around the tumor; if tumor is on a leg, amputation of the leg is commonly recommended
Histiocytosis There are several kinds of histiocytosis: malignant, which is a cancer that affects the skin and internal organs; systemic, which is a rare disease which affects skin and internal organs; and cutaneous, which is a benign disease affecting the skin All cause nodules with hair loss; malignant and systemic also have ulcers Biopsy, fine needle aspirate; Malignant: None effective, may need to consider euthanasia; Systemic: Poor response to chemotherapy; Cutaneous: Corticosteroids, relapse is common, especially in Shar-Peis
Histoplasmosis Fungal infection which can rarely cause skin lesions Ulcerated and draining nodules; most commonly see respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms Needle aspirate or biopsy Ketoconazole, itraconazole

Hot spots (acute moist dermatitis)

Result from allergies, flea bites, mange, anal gland disease, poor grooming, ear infections, plant awns or burrs, arthritis

Hair loss; red, moist, oozing skin; constant licking or scratching

Physical exam and history

Treat underlying condition; clean area; apply Domeboro solution; topical and/or oral antibiotics and steroids

Impetigo Usually affects puppies less than one year of age; often a Staph infection Localized area of small pustules especially on the abdomen (belly), crusts, circular areas of scaling History and physical exam; bacterial culture; skin scrapings Topical hydrogen peroxide; chlorhexidine or benzoyl peroxide shampoos; antibiotics, if serious; puppies usually outgrow it
Kerion Complication of ringworm infection Nodule with hair loss and multiple draining tracts; may not see other signs of ringworm Culture, biopsy Clip area and apply topical treatment and shampoos; may require systemic treatment with ketoconazole or itraconazole
Leishmaniasis Caused by a parasite of blood cells; can be transmitted to people who develop a very severe disease Hair loss, scaling, ulcers on nose and ears, sometimes nodules; many other nonskin-related signs Identify the organism in blood or biopsy; blood tests Because it causes severe disease in people, and treatment of dogs is not curative, euthanasia may be performed

Lice

Infection with several species of lice

Variable; itching, hair loss, crusts, rough hair coat

Finding lice or nits on skin or hair

Pyrethrin, ivermectin (off-label use*), Permethrin (Do NOT use permethrin on cats.)

Lupus erythematosus Autoimmune disease affecting many body systems inlcuding joints, kidneys, muscles, nervous system Skin lesions may include thickening or ulcers of the foot pads, scaling, and recurring bacterial infections with pustules Special blood tests (LE test); biopsy Prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs; treat underlying infections

Lymphoma

Common cancer in dogs; can involve the skin

Itching, ulcers, nodules, redness

Biopsy

Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation; lymphoma of the skin does not usually respond to treatment as well as other lymphomas

Mammary cancer Most common in unspayed females; in dogs, 50% are malignant Single or multiple nodules under the skin, of varying sizes, often irregular in shape; may ulcerate and drain Biopsy Surgical removal
Mast cell tumor Common cancer which is graded from 1-4: Grade 1 is slow-growing tumors, and Grade 4 is rapidly growing malignant tumors with metastases Tumors may be of various sizes, appearances, and numbers Biopsy to grade the tumors which determines treatment and prognosis Depends upon grade; surgical removal, taking large area around tumor; chemotherapy; prednisone; radiation
Melanoma Malignant tumor of older dogs Usually single dark-colored nodule which often ulcerates Biopsy Surgical removal, taking large area around tumor
Nasal pyoderma (furunculosis) Deep infection of the bridge of the nose Papules, pustules, deep ulcers, draining tracts; often results in scarring Skin scraping; bacterial and fungal culture; biopsy; look for underlying cause, e.g., 'rooting around' with nose Clip and clean area; long-term antibiotics; prevent further trauma (e.g., Elizabethan collar); no steroids

Nasal solar dermatitis

See Solar Dermatitis

       
Nocardia Bacterial infection usually acquired from a puncture wound Usually see respiratory signs; skin lesions include draining nodules Bacterial culture, microscopic examination of drainage Poor prognosis; antibiotics
Panniculitis May be caused by trauma, foreign bodies, infections, autoimmune diseases, or unknown causes Deep-seated nodules, often ulcerated and draining; usually on the body vs. the head or limbs; may see loss of appetite, depression Microscopic exam of drainage; biopsy; tests to rule out other causes Surgical removal; if multiple lesions, prednisone and Vitamin E; may need long-term treatment

Pelodera dermatitis

Accidental infection with larvae from a non-parasitic worm that lives in straw and other organic material

Affects areas of skin touching ground; intense itching, redness, hair loss, papules, crusts, scales

Skin scraping and microscopic examination

Remove bedding; mild antibacterial shampoo; steroids if necessary to control itching

Pemphigus erythematosus Less severe form of pemphigus foliaceus, an autoimmune disease; exposure to sunlight may play a role in its development Pustules, drainage and crusts; usually on face and ears History, physical exam, skin scrapings and biopsy Topical and oral steroids; other immunosuppressives
Pemphigus foliaceus The most common form of pemphigus in the dog; an autoimmune disease; some breeds are at increased risk Often affects feet and head; starts with pustules and progresses to severe crusting; depigmentation of the nose is common; itching may occur; if footpads and nails affected often see lameness; symptoms wax and wane; severely affected animals may have fever and loss of appetite History, physical exam, skin scrapings and biopsy Corticosteroids, other immunosuppressive therapy, gold injections
Pemphigus vulgaris A rare form of pemphigus, an autoimmune disease; pemphigus vegetans is a milder form of this disease seen in dogs Large vesicles which break open, ulcerate, and develop thick crusts; lesions often found in the mouth Biopsy Poor prognosis; prednisolone and other immunosuppressants
Perianal fistulas Chronic disease, more common in larger breed dogs, especially German Shepherds Draining tracts around the anus; odor; may see weight loss and diarrhea History and clinical signs In mild cases, clip, cleanse, hydrotherapy, antibiotics, steroids and cyclosporine; in more severe cases, surgery
Perianal gland tumor More common in older unneutered males; may be influenced by sex hormones One or more nodules around anus, on tail, or in groin; if malignant, may ulcerate; may develop seborrhea Biopsy Surgical removal; castration
Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by wound contamination with a fungus A single nodule on the legs or multiple ulcerated and draining nodules over the body Microscopic examination of drainage, culture, biopsy Surgical removal, though often recurs; possible antifungal medications
Pressure ulcers (decubital ulcers) Lesions occur over bony prominences like elbows; common in larger recumbent dogs Start as red, hairless areas and progress to draining ulcers; may become infected Clinical signs, biopsy Keep area clean and prevent contact with urine; antibiotics; apply donut bandages, which provide padding around but not over the ulcer; surgical treatment is sometimes necessary; prevent ulcers by turning the dog every 2 hours
Pyoderma-deep (bacterial infections of skin and underlying tissue) Often secondary to another skin disease such as self-inflicted trauma, wounds, acral lick granulomas, allergies, seborrhea Ulcerated pustules or nodules, draining tracts, crusts, thickened skin Skin scrapings, biopsy, culture Clip and cleanse area; antibiotics, prevent self-trauma (licking, scratching), NO steroids
Pyoderma-superficial

See Impetigo, Folliculitis, Staph hypersensitivity

       
Pythiosis Caused by an aquatic mold Ulcerated draining nodules on the legs, head, and base of tail, which may itch; often see other signs of illness due to infection of the gastrointestinal tract Microscopic examination of drainage; biopsy Often fatal; surgical removal

Ringworm

Infection with several types of fungus

Hair loss, scaliness, crusty areas, pustules, vesicles, some itching; can develop a draining nodule called a 'kerion'

Culture

Miconazole, lime sulfur dips; oral griseofulvin or itraconazole

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Caused by an organism spread by ticks; skin lesions are not always present Fever, loss of appetite, depression, pain in joints, edema, hemorrhages under the skin (appear as bruises), ulceration of mucous membranes, and extremities Special blood tests to detect the organism or antibodies to it; biopsy Antibiotics and supportive care
Schnauzer comedo syndrome Uncommon; only seen in Miniature Schnauzers Comedones (black heads) on back, mild itching; may see secondary infection, thinning of hair; small crusts may develop Clinical signs, breed, skin biopsy Long-term antiseborrheic shampoos; sometimes antibiotics and retinoids
Sebaceous gland tumors Common; rarely spread or recur; several types Nodules which may ulcerate; usually on the head and legs Biopsy Surgical removal, if invasive; if a benign lesion, removal is optional
Skin cancer See specific type, e.g., Fibrosarcoma, Melanoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Mast cell tumor, Lymphoma      
Skin fold pyoderma (intertrigo) Inflammation of skin that contacts other skin, e.g., lips, facial folds (on Bulldogs, for instance), vulva, tail, toes, and bodies of obese dogs Red, oozing area; crusts; often becomes infected and may develop odor Clinical signs; skin scrapings and tape impression smears Clip and cleanse area; keep area clean; medicated shampoos; topical antibiotics; treat underlying condition, e.g., increased tears from eye disease, obesity, allergy
Solar dermatosis Skin reaction to sunlight, especially unpigmented skin; most common on the noses of Collies, Shelties, and similar breeds Redness, hair loss, and scaling on nose and ears, later crusts and ulcers History, breed, physical exam, skin biopsy Must avoid further sun exposure, especially 9 am - 3 pm; sunblock, steroids; tattoo nose or apply black ink
Spider bites/eosinophilic folliculitis Bites from some spiders and caterpillars contain strong toxins; usually appear on the nose of dogs and paws of cats Immediately after the bite, swelling, redness, pain; subsequently may develop extensive ulcers with draining History, biopsy Corticosteroids, wet dressings, protect the area from self-inflicted trauma; may develop permanent loss of hair and scarring
Sporotrichosis Caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii, which generally enters through a puncture wound Raised nodules with multiple draining tracts; cats may develop fever, depression, and loss of appetite Microscopic exam of drainage; culture; fluorescent antibody test Potassium iodide, ketoconazole, itraconazole
Squamous cell carcinoma Common malignant tumor; may occur more commonly in sun-damaged or chronically irritated skin Two forms: Cauliflower-like lesions, often ulcerated more common on lips and nose; Crusted ulcers on limbs or body Biopsy Surgical removal, radiation, hyperthermia
Staph hypersensitivity Rare disease in dogs caused by an allergic reaction to the bacteria Staphylococcus; often occurs in the presence of other skin diseases Red skin, pustules, vesicles, severe itching, and sometimes crusts Culture, biopsy, intradermal allergy test Treat any underlying disease; antibiotics
Superficial necrolytic dermatitis of Miniature Schnauzers Skin reaction to shampoos (usually insecticidal or medicated) Papules, pustules, ulcers with drainage; develop 2-3 days after exposure to the shampoo; may also see fever and depression Breed, history of exposure, clinical signs Treat symptomatically
Tail gland hyperplasia Dogs have a sebaceous gland on the top of the tail near its base; in this disorder, the gland enlarges; seen in unneutered dogs and secondary to other diseases such as hypothyroidism Oily area, hair loss, crusts, and hyperpigmentation on area over gland Clinical signs; look for underlying cause Castration may help; treat underlying cause; surgical removal
Tick bites Ticks cause a local inflammation in the skin, even when the entire tick is removed Nodule and redness at site of the bite; may itch and develop crusts; may last several months History Remove the tick; use a tick preventive; allow nodule to resolve on its own
Toxic epidermal necrolysis Severe immune reaction to infections or drugs; may also be caused by cancer or other diseases Vesicles, erosions, ulcers, and crusts over large areas of the body, especially mouth and feet; may look like a severe burn History, clinical signs, skin biopsy Prognosis is poor; treat underlying condition; give supportive care, corticosteroids may be helpful
Ulcerative dermatosis of Collies and Shetland Sheepdogs May be a type of dermatomyositis; cause unknown; seen in middle-age or older dogs Large vesicles and ulcers on groin, axilla, eyelids, ears, genitals, anus, and foot pads; painful Breed, physical exam, biopsy Avoid trauma; antibiotics, if secondary infection; Vitamin E, fatty acids, short-term use of prednisone, oxpentoxifylline
Urine scald Occurs when skin is in prolonged contact with urine, e.g., recumbent animals Red, oozing lesions in areas exposed to urine History, clinical signs Clip and cleanse area; keep it clean; place dog on wire or plastic rack or grate; change bedding often; medicated shampoos; topical antibiotics
Uveodermatologic syndrome Hypersensitivity to melanin (the dark pigment) in the skin and eye Pigment loss on nose, lips, and eyelids; occasionally footpads, scrotum, and anus can be affected; rarely see ulcers or drainage; uveitis (inflammation of the eye) may occur History, clinical signs, biopsy Long-term prednisone, azathiprine; appropriate eye medications
Zinc responsive dermatosis Three types: I in Huskies and Malamutes; II in rapidly growing puppies of large breeds; III in English Bull Terriers Crusting and scaling, redness, hair loss, sometimes oily skin, secondary bacterial infections common History, breed, physical exam, skin biopsy Correct any dietary deficiency, medicated shampoos, treat secondary infections
Zygomycosis Uncommon fungal disease Draining nodules; may also see pneumonia, vomiting, or jaundice depending upon the body organs involved Microscopic examination of the drainage; biopsy Often fatal; surgical removal of nodules followed by amphotericin B, benzimidazoles, or potassium iodide

* off-label use: medication used to treat a condition for which it was not developed (or licensed). A large number of medications fall under this category. Research has almost always been performed to determine the effectiveness and safety of the product, but the manufacturer has not undertaken the lengthy process required for licensure.

 
References and Further Reading

Birchard, SJ; Sherding RG (eds.) Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, PA; 1994.

Greene, CE (ed.) Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, PA; 1998.

Griffin, C; Kwochka, K; Macdonald, J. Current Veterinary Dermatology. Mosby Publications. Linn, MO; 1993.

McKeever, PJ; Harvey, RG. Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Iowa State University Press. Ames, Iowa; 1998.

Paterson, S. Skin Diseases of the Cat. Blackwell Science Ltd. London, England; 2000.

Paterson, S. Skin Diseases of the Dog. Blackwell Science Ltd. London, England; 1998.

Scott, D; Miller, W; Griffin, C. Muller and Kirk's Small Animal Dermatology. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, PA; 1995.

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