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Nano Aquariums: How to Create a Healthy Small Aquarium
Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith
Marine Aquarium Set Up
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nano reef aquariumWhether you're establishing your first aquarium, or expanding your hobby experience with a new niche system, small aquariums in the 12-gallon range make a rewarding and relaxing project at home or in the office. These small aquariums, often called "nano-aquariums," have a compact footprint that makes them a perfect fit for that empty corner or bare wall. With the advances in multi-stage filtration and compact fluorescent lighting, maintaining a thriving freshwater or marine system in a nano-environment is easier than ever.

But small-volume aquariums also demand special attention, because changes in water quality, temperature, and fish stress levels become more pronounced in aquariums less than 20 gallons. With patience, research, and a little extra diligence, you too can create a beautiful, healthy nano-system. Here's some tips to get started:

  1. Pick a kit - A hobbyist's best bet is to get a foolproof aquarium kit with integrated filtration and lighting built-in. That way, every component is a perfect fit, and you'll just need to decide on an appropriate heater. The most popular 12-gallon aquarium kits include the classic Eclipse System Twelve and the cutting edge Nano Cube, each in the $100 range. Both feature stylish bowfront designs with panoramic viewing.

  2. Place wisely - Though you may be tempted to position your compact aquarium on a desktop or office cabinet, remember that even a 12-gallon aquarium weighs over 120 lbs when filled! Invest in an appropriate aquarium stand that's built to bear the load and humidity. You'll be rewarded with peace of mind - and extra storage space too!

  3. Choose a theme - Focus your aquascaping and stocking plans around a specific region, species, or community grouping. This will make it easier to keep your water parameters on target for all inhabitants at once, and the familiar surroundings you provide - including shelter and breeding structures - will keep stress levels to a minimum.

  4. Stock small & sparse - Restraint and patience are a small aquarium hobbyist's best friends. Avoid overpopulating your aquarium or you'll find water quality very difficult to keep viable. Also, when establishing a new system, introduce only a few fish at a time over several weeks - if not months. Select the smallest fish possible, building your community around a small school, one or two showcase fish, and a modest group of bottom cleaners.

  5. Go live for natural filtration - Let nature work for your aquarium's health. For best results with minimum external filtration, avoid artificial plants and structures. Instead, consider live plants and eco-complete gravel for freshwater aquariums, and live rock or sand for your nano reef.

  6. Brighten your eclipse - Many Eclipse System Twelve hobbyists who want to see even better results in plant or reef growth choose to upgrade the wattage of their hood lighting. Fortunately, retrofit kits built specifically for the task are easy to find and install.

  7. Test stripsTest/Observe daily - Small-volume aquariums experience accelerated cycles in water quality, making daily testing and observation an absolute necessity. Fish behavior - gasping, hiding, drifting, or darting - is your best indicator of other "invisible" health dangers to be concerned about. Also, keep some 5-in-1 Quick Dip Strips near your aquarium for "ballpark" parameter checks. If some nitrate, nitrite, or pH levels concern you, zero-in on the problem with more accurate, pro-grade test kits.

  8. Frequent partial water changes - In nature, rain and water currents refresh water conditions by diluting and carrying away toxins before they can build up to excessive levels. The best thing you can do for your inhabitants' health is to change their water - 10-20% - as often as twice a week. This is especially important if you're pushing the population limit, or are keeping fish with larger bio-loads.

  9. Change media often - To avoid the scourge of algae and to keep your fish healthy and stress free, change your filter media according to the manufacturer's guidelines. If you're inattentive to regular filter maintenance, some chemical media, as it becomes exhausted and saturated, may begin seeping the excess toxins back into your aquarium!

  10. Act fast when problems arise - In small enclosed ecosystems, little problems become big problems fast. The bio-wheel you noticed has stopped turning, that little white spot on your Gourami, the Nitrite level which tested high . . . waiting even a day to take action could lead to your entire system crashing. Observe daily, test often, and always remedy the problems you discover within the same day. The health of your aquatic life depends on it!

Considerations for Aquarium Setups: How to Get One Running 
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