Pets may gain exposure by eating bags of cocaine, sniffing the drug, or ingesting or licking drug paraphenalia such as used facial tissues.
Cocaine is an illegal street drug with a high incidence of abuse. It may be sniffed (snorted) as a powder, smoked, injected, or swallowed. It is available as a hydrochloride salt (coke, snow) or as the free-base form (crack, rock, free-base). Cocaine may contain impurities including other 'caine' anesthetics, caffeine, amphetamine, or quinine which can cause additional complications and side effects.
Varies depending on type and concentration.
Drooling, dilated pupils, hyperactivity, muscle tremors, increased heart rate, increased respiratory rate, vomiting, seizures, increased body temperature, respiratory depression, coma, and cardiac and respiratory arrest.
Induce vomiting if pet ate a facial tissue or small amount. DO NOT induce vomiting if the pet ingested bag(s) of cocaine since that will increase the risk of a bag breaking. Seek veterinary attention.
General treatment: The cocaine will be removed from the stomach through the induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, endoscopy, or surgery depending on what and how much was ingested. Activated charcoal is administered.
Supportive treatment: IV fluids, oxygen, and sedation are given, if needed. Heart and lung function are monitored and abnormalities treated. Glucose levels are monitored. Chlorpromazine may be given to reduce some of the symptoms.
Specific treatment: Unavailable. Naloxone (an opiate narcotic reversal agent) may be tried as opiate narcotics are often combined with cocaine.
Fair to guarded.